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Journal Titles: RUSI JOURNAL --- WORLD POLITICS

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2

RUSI Journal
Volume 166, no. 2, July 2021

Record

Results

1.

Editor’s Note by De Angelis, Emma. The RUSI Journal, July 2021, Vol. 166 Issue: Number 2 p9-9, 1p; (AN 57127931)
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2.

Why the ‘Fear, Honour and Interest’ Trinity Harms Our Understanding of War by Zilincik, Samuel. The RUSI Journal, July 2021, Vol. 166 Issue: Number 2 p10-17, 8p; Abstract: While the ‘fear, honour and interest’ trinity is immensely popular, it is also fallacious. Samuel Zilincik discusses how the trinity is not a neutral analytical tool but rather a rhetorical instrument to advocate foreign aggression. It conveys an incomplete picture of war causation by focusing on the aggressor’s motivation while ignoring that of the defender. It also insufficiently explains motivations for hostile behaviour by omitting salient stimuli and the variance of emotional motives across cultures. Through its popularity, the trinity also detracts attention from truly insightful observations that Thucydides made in his work. Zilincik suggests that going beyond the trinity is essential to enhancing knowledge of strategic affairs. ; (AN 57127935)
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3.

On Sieges by Fox, Amos. The RUSI Journal, July 2021, Vol. 166 Issue: Number 2 p18-28, 11p; Abstract: Sieges, while not as flashy as hybrid warfare or grey-zone conflict, nor as trendy as disruptive technology and its associated concepts, command a central position in the wars of the post-Cold War era. Furthermore, despite being commonly associated with the tactical and operational level of conflict, sieges are often strategic and decisive affairs, as the siege of the US Embassy in Baghdad in December 2019 clearly demonstrated. Sieges bring a degree of decisiveness back to the battlefield, and those of the Russo-Ukrainian War (2014–present) bring this point to bear. In this article, Amos Fox suggests that policymakers, strategists and practitioners must understand how sieges operate and where they fit within war.; (AN 57127939)
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4.

In a Competitive Era, Look Beyond Integration Towards Adaptability by O’Neill, Paul. The RUSI Journal, July 2021, Vol. 166 Issue: Number 2 p30-39, 10p; Abstract: Integration is the latest focus for developing the UK armed forces, as well as other militaries facing similar challenges from adversaries blurring the boundaries between peace and war. Paul O’Neill argues, however, that it cannot be an end in itself. Integration needs to be relegated to and regulated by a higher purpose: adaptability.; (AN 57127936)
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5.

Security Under Strain? Protecting Nuclear Materials During the Coronavirus Pandemic by Hobbs, Christopher; Roth, Nickolas; Salisbury, Daniel. The RUSI Journal, July 2021, Vol. 166 Issue: Number 2 p40-50, 11p; Abstract: The coronavirus pandemic has had a significant impact on the nuclear industry, complicating operations and altering the delivery of both safety and security. This has generated concerns over the ability of governments and industry to provide vital services, while also protecting against changing threats that have evolved to take advantage of the pandemic. Christopher Hobbs, Nickolas Roth and Daniel Salisbury examine the nuclear security community’s response to this challenge, exploring how the risk landscape has been changed by the pandemic and the efficacy of new security solutions.; (AN 57127934)
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6.

‘Weak’ and ‘Strong’ States in Pandemic Times by Galeeva, Diana. The RUSI Journal, July 2021, Vol. 166 Issue: Number 2 p52-60, 9p; Abstract: The coronavirus pandemic has highlighted some of the limitations of traditional assessments of the power of states as ‘strong’ or ‘weak’ in hard power terms. Diana Galeeva argues that when faced with a global human security threat, a state’s capacity can be partially measured by its ability to provide human security to its citizens, and to leverage its economic strength to provide foreign aid.; (AN 57127938)
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7.

Collaborative Defence Procurement in a Post-Brexit World by Magill, Peter. The RUSI Journal, July 2021, Vol. 166 Issue: Number 2 p62-70, 9p; Abstract: Peter Magill considers the current state of bilateral defence procurement between the UK and France, analysing developments over the past 10 years and placing the current relationship within the context of Brexit. He argues that greater cooperation between the two countries is in the UK’s national interest and proposes several ways in which cooperation can be improved.; (AN 57127932)
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8.

Dark Mirror: Edward Snowden and the American Surveillance State by Cyr, Arthur I. The RUSI Journal, July 2021, Vol. 166 Issue: Number 2 p72-73, 2p; (AN 57127940)
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9.

The Russian Conquest of Central Asia: A Study in Imperial Expansion, 1814–1914 by Monaghan, Andrew. The RUSI Journal, July 2021, Vol. 166 Issue: Number 2 p74-75, 2p; (AN 57127937)
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10.

Winning Wars: The Enduring Nature and Changing Character of Victory from Antiquity to the 21st Century by Heuser, Beatrice. The RUSI Journal, July 2021, Vol. 166 Issue: Number 2 p75-77, 3p; (AN 57127933)
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4

Security Dialogue
Volume 52, no. 1, November 2021

Record

Results

1.

Race and racism in critical security studies by Salter, Mark B; Gilbert, Emily; Grove, Jairus; Hönke, Jana; Rosenow, Doerthe; Stavrianakis, Anna; Stern, Maria. Security Dialogue, November 2021, Vol. 52 Issue: Number Supplement 1 p3-7, 5p; (AN 58150716)
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2.

Making amends: Towards an antiracist critical security studies and international relations by Behera, Navnita Chadha; Hinds, Kristina; Tickner, Arlene B. Security Dialogue, November 2021, Vol. 52 Issue: Number Supplement 1 p8-16, 9p; (AN 58150719)
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3.

Critical privilege studies: Making visible the reproduction of racism in the everyday and international relations by Peterson, V Spike. Security Dialogue, November 2021, Vol. 52 Issue: Number Supplement 1 p17-27, 11p; (AN 58150712)
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4.

Security as white privilege: Racializing whiteness in critical security studies by Guerra, Lucas. Security Dialogue, November 2021, Vol. 52 Issue: Number Supplement 1 p28-37, 10p; (AN 58150717)
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5.

Beyond ambivalence: Locating the whiteness of security by Machold, Rhys; Charrett, Catherine Chiniara. Security Dialogue, November 2021, Vol. 52 Issue: Number Supplement 1 p38-48, 11p; (AN 58150727)
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6.

The banalization of race in international security studies: From absolution to abolition by Manchanda, Nivi. Security Dialogue, November 2021, Vol. 52 Issue: Number Supplement 1 p49-59, 11p; (AN 58150713)
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7.

A call for abolition: The disavowal and displacement of race in critical security studies by Chandler, David; Chipato, Farai. Security Dialogue, November 2021, Vol. 52 Issue: Number Supplement 1 p60-68, 9p; (AN 58150722)
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8.

Racism! What do you mean? From Howell and Richter-Montpetit’s underestimation of the problem, towards situating security through struggle by Coleman, Lara Montesinos. Security Dialogue, November 2021, Vol. 52 Issue: Number Supplement 1 p69-77, 9p; (AN 58150714)
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9.

Can securitization theory be saved from itself? A decolonial and feminist intervention by Gomes, Mariana Selister; Marques, Renata Rodrigues. Security Dialogue, November 2021, Vol. 52 Issue: Number Supplement 1 p78-87, 10p; (AN 58150715)
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10.

On whiteness in critical security studies: The case of nuclear weapons by van Munster, Rens. Security Dialogue, November 2021, Vol. 52 Issue: Number Supplement 1 p88-97, 10p; (AN 58150723)
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11.

Saving the souls of white folk: Humanitarianism as white supremacy by Pallister-Wilkins, Polly. Security Dialogue, November 2021, Vol. 52 Issue: Number Supplement 1 p98-106, 9p; (AN 58150720)
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12.

The making of racialized subjects: Practices, history, struggles by Tazzioli, Martina. Security Dialogue, November 2021, Vol. 52 Issue: Number Supplement 1 p107-114, 8p; (AN 58150728)
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13.

Race, space, and ‘terror’: Notes from East Africa by Al-Bulushi, Samar. Security Dialogue, November 2021, Vol. 52 Issue: Number Supplement 1 p115-123, 9p; (AN 58150725)
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14.

The contingencies of whiteness: Gendered/racialized global dynamics of security narratives by Baker, Catherine. Security Dialogue, November 2021, Vol. 52 Issue: Number Supplement 1 p124-132, 9p; (AN 58150726)
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15.

Colouring critical security studies: A view from the classroom by Sen, Somdeep. Security Dialogue, November 2021, Vol. 52 Issue: Number Supplement 1 p133-141, 9p; (AN 58150718)
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16.

Critical security studies, racism and eclecticism by Makinda, Samuel M. Security Dialogue, November 2021, Vol. 52 Issue: Number Supplement 1 p142-151, 10p; (AN 58150724)
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17.

Decolonizing the Responsibility to Protect: On pervasive Eurocentrism, Southern agency and struggles over universals by Pison Hindawi, Coralie. Security Dialogue, 20210101, Issue: Number Preprints; Abstract: Many postcolonial or critical scholars are rather sceptical of the Responsibility to Protect principle. In most of the critical literature, Responsibility to Protect (R2P) is presented as a product from the West, whose liberal ideal relies on a perception of Southern states being potentially dysfunctional, which in turn justifies an interventionist discourse with neocolonial overtones. The problem with this interpretation of R2P is that it essentially ignores non-Western, particularly Southern, inputs on the concept, falling precisely into the trap that, many authors claim, vitiates Responsibility to Protect: its West-centrism. Building upon a mix of critical, decolonial, postcolonial and Third World Approaches to International Law scholarship, this article proposes a number of additional steps to decolonize R2P in an effort to avoid what Pinar Bilgin describes as ‘conflating the critiques of the particularity of universals with critiques of the idea of having universals’. What successive decolonizing layers expose is a negotiation process in which the agency of states from the global South in shaping the – still controversial – principle has proved particularly obvious. Decolonizing Responsibility to Protect, this article argues, requires critical scholars to engage in a contrapuntal analysis in order to acknowledge the concept’s mutual constitution by the West and the ‘rest’ and the deeper struggles over universals hiding underneath.; (AN 57987044)
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5

Security Studies
Volume 30, no. 3, May 2021

Record

Results

1.

The Psychology of Overt and Covert Intervention by Poznansky, Michael. Security Studies, May 2021, Vol. 30 Issue: Number 3 p325-353, 29p; Abstract: AbstractOvert interventions to forcibly promote regimes abroad are often a risky undertaking. If successful, they can replace or rescue regimes and signal resolve in the process. But open meddling can also trigger large-scale escalation, incite nationalist backlash, and harm a state’s reputation. Despite an emerging consensus that states often prefer covert action to avoid these liabilities, leaders sometimes opt for overt action anyway. Why? Drawing on the concept of loss aversion, this article argues that leaders’ tolerance for risk differs depending on whether the goal is to overthrow a foreign regime or prop one up. Because regime rescue approximates loss prevention, leaders are more likely to pursue risky intervention strategies than they are to change regimes, a prospective gain. This framework helps explain why leaders are more likely to accept the risks of overt action when saving a foreign regime and more likely to go covert when deposing one. I evaluate this theory using the Eisenhower administration’s covert regime change efforts in Syria (1956–57) and overt regime rescue attempts in Lebanon (1958).; (AN 57501092)
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2.

Patrons and Personnel: The Foreign Determinants of Military Recruitment Policies by Margulies, Max Z.. Security Studies, May 2021, Vol. 30 Issue: Number 3 p354-384, 31p; Abstract: Why do some states develop conscript armies, whereas others rely on volunteers? Most theories of military design describe domestic elites as making decisions based on rational security demands or cultural understandings of what a military should look like. Contrary to these explanations, many states faced with the challenge of building a military are dependent on powerful military patrons with strong beliefs about how to design their clients’ militaries. When states that are building new militaries have foreign military patrons, they are likely to emulate their patron’s recruitment practices. Patrons with sufficient interest and will to engage in security force assistance use their influence to shape recruitment practices in new or postconflict states. This article describes the dynamics of military patronage as they relate to recruitment decisions and finds support for the argument using both original quantitative data and a brief case comparison.; (AN 57501093)
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3.

Partnership in Leadership: Why and How Do Leading Powers Extend Managerial Privileges to Junior Partners? by Heimann, Gadi; Paikowsky, Deganit; Kedem, Nadav. Security Studies, May 2021, Vol. 30 Issue: Number 3 p385-418, 34p; Abstract: AbstractThis article seeks to explain states’ success, either full or partial, in obtaining a place in an exclusive managerial forum and the managerial privileges this entails. We argue that the ability to join an exclusive forum and gain these privileges depends on three factors: the extent to which the potential junior partners’ assets seem attractive to the forum’s leaders; the extent of potential junior partners’ solidarity with the leading powers; and the leading powers’ ability to obtain legitimacy for including new members from the other states subject to the authority of the forum. These arguments are demonstrated through an examination of two test cases: the United Kingdom’s partial success in achieving integration at the end of the 1940s by gaining informal privileges from the United States, and France’s failure to gain institutionalized integration a decade later and its refusal to be satisfied with informal privileges.; (AN 57501090)
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4.

Who Blinked? Performing Resolve (or Lack Thereof) in Face-to-Face Diplomacy by Wong, Seanon S.. Security Studies, May 2021, Vol. 30 Issue: Number 3 p419-449, 31p; Abstract: AbstractLeaders often emerge from a face-to-face interaction with an implicit understanding on who is expected to stand firm and, conversely, to back down, on a disputed issue. How is that possible? In this article, I develop a theory of resolve performance. I argue that expressions of resolve are speech acts. To establish resolve, leaders must perform such acts competently, there and then, both verbally and behaviorally. A successful (or what speech act theory calls “felicitous”) performance also depends on the reaction of one’s counterpart. By virtue of the intersubjective belief they share about their respective performances—who has carried the day and who has “blinked”—a “focal point” often arises regarding how they are expected to proceed on the disputed issue. I elaborate on several types of speech acts leaders use to perform resolve (threats, implicatures, assertions, and challenges), and illustrate my theory with an in-depth case study on the two days of meetings between John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev in Vienna in June 1961. The leaders left the summit with the focal point that Kennedy was irresolute and Khrushchev was emboldened to make a move on Berlin. I discuss how such a focal point led to escalation of tensions between the two superpowers and what can be learned about the causal significance of face-to-face diplomacy in international politics.; (AN 57501094)
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5.

The Effect of Aerial Bombardment on Insurgent Civilian Victimization by Tucker, Colin. Security Studies, May 2021, Vol. 30 Issue: Number 3 p450-483, 34p; Abstract: AbstractLittle is known about how air strikes influence insurgent behavior toward civilians. This study provides evidence that air strikes against the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) by counterinsurgency forces were a contributing factor in its civilian victimization. I theorize that air strikes expanded the distribution of insurgent fatalities to include higher-echelon membership and, at the same time, imposed psychological impairments on its fighters. As a consequence, these changes relaxed restraints on civilian abuse at the organizational and individual levels. This theory is informed by interviews of ISIS defectors and translations of ISIS documents and tested through a statistical analysis of granular-level data on air strikes and one-sided violence during ISIS’s insurgency. These findings contribute to our knowledge of insurgent behavior and provide important policy implications in the use of air strikes as a counterinsurgency (COIN) tool.; (AN 57501091)
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6

Small Wars and Insurgencies
Volume 32, no. 4-5, July 2021

Record

Results

1.

Ireland, 2021: a century of insurgency, terrorism and security challenges by Edwards, Aaron; McGrattan, Cillian. Small Wars and Insurgencies, July 2021, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4-5 p587-597, 11p; (AN 57883214)
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2.

‘Lessons learned’ during the Interbellum: ‘Irish war’ and British counterinsurgency by Malkin, Stanislav. Small Wars and Insurgencies, July 2021, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4-5 p598-618, 21p; Abstract: ABSTRACTHistorians generally view the Irish War of Independence as the first and largely unsuccessful experience for the British army in conducting modern counterinsurgency. This article argues that during the Interbellum the ‘Irish war’ became a starting point for the military thought about this type of conflict, although this did not become fully consolidated in the army’s thinking. Some important aspects of the British forces’ conduct in the ‘Irish war’ remained undervalued, not least because of the only official analysis of this conflict, ‘The Record of the Rebellion in Ireland’, was classified for a long time. It strongly challenges traditional and revisionist understanding of this conflict and its implications on the British way of counterinsurgency during the Interbellum. These contradictions between documentary evidence from archives and established methods of historical thinking, as well as correlations of archival material with our understanding of modern counterinsurgencies, will be contrasted and analysed in this article.; (AN 57883211)
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3.

Shallow graves; documenting & assessing IRA disappearances during the Irish revolution 1919–1923 by Bielenberg, Andy; Óg Ó Ruairc, Pádraig. Small Wars and Insurgencies, July 2021, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4-5 p619-641, 23p; Abstract: ABSTRACTThis article assesses the extent, geography and nature of ‘forced disappearances’ carried out by the Irish Republican Army during the Irish Revolution of 1919–1923. The victims were either Irish civilians suspected of being spies and informers working for British intelligence, or members of the British army and Royal Irish Constabulary. It reveals the scale of these secret killings as a phenomenon that developed in the context of the IRA’s military strategy during the Irish War of Independence. Disappearances continued at a far lower level during the Truce (largely in Co. Cork), and almost ceased during the Irish Civil War of 1922–1923. The study found that rather than being a nationwide military strategy forced disappearances were the initiative of local IRA units, with those in Co. Cork (notably Cork 1 Brigade), displaying a more ruthless attitude to this tactic than elsewhere. Civilian targets (the majority of whom were ex-soldiers) were usually assumed by the IRA to be dangerous British intelligence assets. This was also the case with many crown force targets, but others were simply opportunistic killings.; (AN 57883217)
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4.

Brothers in arms? How the IRA and EOKA insurgencies transcended the local and became transnational by Edwards, Aaron; Hadjiathanasiou, Maria. Small Wars and Insurgencies, July 2021, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4-5 p642-664, 23p; Abstract: ABSTRACTThroughout the 1950s Britain faced unprecedented challenges to its imperial rule. Civil disobedience, insurgency and terrorism gripped its colonies as the flames of nationalism and anti-colonialism burned brightly across the world. In two of Britain’s most important Cold War strategic outposts, Northern Ireland and Cyprus, insurgents belonging to the IRA and EOKA launched armed campaigns to undermine British rule. This article examines the insurgencies on both islands in the period 1955–59, comparing the respective approaches taken by the IRA and EOKA to guerrilla warfare. Drawing on original English and Greek language sources, as well as other empirical evidence, the article argues that the IRA and EOKA interpreted their struggles in complementary ways as part of a broader national liberation struggle, which, above all, suggests a shared understanding of British imperialism. Admittedly, beyond a mutually perceived ‘brotherly bond’, IRA leaders did not apply specific military lessons they had learned from members of EOKA while in English prisons in the 1950s until the much later Northern Ireland ‘Troubles’. Nevertheless, we argue that it is important to look at the genealogy of ideas for it reveals broader patterns regarding the organisational learning of militant groups engaged in campaigns against a common enemy.; (AN 57883212)
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5.

Sectarianism and the Provisional Irish Republican Army by McCleery, Martin J.. Small Wars and Insurgencies, July 2021, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4-5 p665-686, 22p; Abstract: ABSTRACTThis article addresses the scholarly debate over sectarianism and the Provisional Irish Republican Army’s (PIRA) campaign during the Northern Ireland Troubles. It argues that although there is much merit in the contributions made in this discourse, unfortunately, for, the most part, there is a lack of engagement with the deeper meaning of sectarianism. Consequently, it seeks to enhance the understanding of sectarianism within this arena before considering the nature of the PIRA campaign. By conducting a thorough analysis of the killings conducted by this organisation in the early years of the conflict it is ultimately concluded that, at the very least, PIRA tolerated, and likely sanctioned, sectarian violence from within its ranks.; (AN 57883210)
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6.

Inter- and intra-agency intelligence liaison during ‘the troubles’ by Newbery, Samantha. Small Wars and Insurgencies, July 2021, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4-5 p687-713, 27p; Abstract: ABSTRACTIntelligence is crucial to success in counter-terrorism, and successful intelligence work involves effective liaison between and within all the organisations involved. Scholars rarely address intelligence in counter-terrorism other than through case studies, while studies of intelligence in counter-insurgency and studies of international intelligence liaison emphasise the value of intelligence liaison with little attention to how it works in practice. This article substantially expands existing knowledge and understanding by focusing on intelligence coordination within Northern Ireland in the 1990s. It draws on heretofore unexploited, yet voluminous, original material. It analyses the contribution that computerisation made to inter-agency liaison, the contribution the Northern Ireland Prison Service made to intelligence work, the role played by intra- and inter-agency structures and the valuable work that the right individuals in the right posts can do. This article thereby provides a broader and deeper understanding of the challenges faced by state agencies and how some of these were overcome to facilitate inter- and intra-agency intelligence liaison in Northern Ireland in the 1990s. It therefore contributes to emerging theory that seeks to explain intelligence.; (AN 57883219)
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7.

The unfinished revolution of ‘dissident’ Irish republicans: divergent views in a fragmented base by McGlinchey, Marisa. Small Wars and Insurgencies, July 2021, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4-5 p714-746, 33p; Abstract: ABSTRACTIn April 2019, a so-called ‘dissident’ republican New IRA gun-man killed journalist Lyra McKee, whilst firing at police during a riot in Derry in the North of Ireland. The New and Continuity IRAs remain wedded to an armed campaign for Irish sovereignty, drawing legitimacy from partition and the ongoing British ‘presence’ in Northern Ireland – and rejecting the significance of altered conditions within the state. Conversely, independent ‘dissident’ republicans, formerly in the Provisional IRA, criticise the ongoing campaign by the groups as futile. This article examines key areas of debate withinthe ‘dissident’/radical republican base, on armed actions at present – drawing on unpublished qualitative interviews with independents, the RSF Movement, and Saoradh,– the organisation believed to be the political wing of the New IRA. This article assesses the nature of the campaign waged by the Continuity and New IRAs and examines whether it represents a continuation of the Provisional IRA campaign, or a new departure.; (AN 57883209)
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8.

From warrior regimes to illicit sovereigns: Ulster loyalist paramilitaries and the security implications for Brexit by Brennan, Seán. Small Wars and Insurgencies, July 2021, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4-5 p747-771, 25p; Abstract: ABSTRACTThe United Kingdom’s (UK) decision to leave the European Union (EU) has been felt most acutely in Ireland. One group specifically impacted by this decision is Ulster Loyalism. With a historic ‘warrior regime’ role in defending its community, both from irredentist Irish Nationalism and British government subterfuge, how Loyalism responds to Brexit is uncertain. Historically, Loyalism has promoted political violence to stymie UK strategic objectives in Ireland. Therefore, any attempt to diminish the Union between Great Britain and Northern Ireland raises the prospect of a rejuvenated loyalist terror campaign being directed at those it deems a threat to the loyalist community and their territorial sovereignty in Northern Ireland. In its current ‘post-ceasefire’ guise, there appears to be no immediate threat of a loyalist return to violence. Yet, with Sea Border and a nascent ‘Shared Island’ approach enacted by the Irish Government, promoting a regulatory alignment with the EU, Northern Ireland is once again at a crossroads. How Ulster Loyalism responds to such developments then posits a key question for both UK and EU intelligence agencies, on how they respond to any upsurge in loyalist paramilitary violence in a post-Brexit era.; (AN 57883221)
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9.

Explaining violent dissident Republican breakaway through deviant cohesion by Finnegan, Patrick. Small Wars and Insurgencies, July 2021, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4-5 p772-788, 17p; Abstract: ABSTRACTThe accepted knowledge concerning dissident splits from the Provisional IRA is that different groups or individuals broke away because of their disagreement with the political progresses made during the peace process. This paper will argue that other factors were at play. Primarily, that ‘deviant’ cohesion played a significant role. While the question of politicialisation offers significant insight into the political dimension of this split, this article will adopt a more sociological approach. Answers provided through this sociological perspective are not intended to undermine the political explanation, rather to build upon them and provide a more holistic understanding of the issue.; (AN 57883218)
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10.

‘Attempting to deal with the past’: historical inquiries, legacy prosecutions, and Operation Banner by Sanders, Andrew. Small Wars and Insurgencies, July 2021, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4-5 p789-811, 23p; Abstract: ABSTRACTOver the summer of 2019 a number of maroon banners appeared across towns and cities in Northern Ireland, declaring that the local population ‘stands with Soldier F’. Soldier F was a member of the Parachute Regiment who, in March of 2019, was charged with the murders of James Wray and William McKinney and five additional attempted murders as a result of his actions on Bloody Sunday, 30 January 1972. These charges were announced at a time when it was reported that up to 200 former members of the British Army could face official investigation for their conduct in Northern Ireland. These cases sit at the centre of the sensitive and divisive issue of the legacy dimension of the Northern Ireland conflict, posing a challenge to the continuing success of the Northern Ireland peace process. Engaging a developing literature on post conflict reconciliation processes, this article will analyse the issue of legacy prosecutions from Operation Banner.; (AN 57883215)
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11.

Bringing politics back in: interpretations of the peace process and the security challenge in Northern Ireland by Dixon, Paul. Small Wars and Insurgencies, July 2021, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4-5 p812-836, 25p; Abstract: ABSTRACTThere are contrasting interpretations of the Northern Ireland peace process which have competing implications for the lessons to be drawn from the conflict. This article offers a Constructivist Realist critique of three leading perspectives on the peace process: Neoconservative, Cosmopolitan and Conservative Realists (or Consociationalists). The Neoconservative perspective emphasises the importance of security policy in defeating terrorists before negotiations. By contrast, Cosmopolitans and Conservative Realists emphasise the importance of constitutions and tend to ignore security. Constructivist Realists argue that all three accounts are over-generalised, provide inadequate understandings of politics and, therefore, the relative success of the peace process.; (AN 57883216)
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12.

Afterword by Kennedy-Pipe, Caroline. Small Wars and Insurgencies, July 2021, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4-5 p837-844, 8p; (AN 57883213)
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13.

Remaking the Modern World 1900-2015: global connections and comparisons by Rich, Paul B.. Small Wars and Insurgencies, July 2021, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4-5 p845-850, 6p; (AN 57883208)
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14.

Syrian Requiem: the civil war and its aftermath by Mami, Fouad. Small Wars and Insurgencies, July 2021, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4-5 p851-854, 4p; (AN 57883220)
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7

Southeast European and Black Sea Studies
Volume 21, no. 3, July 2021

Record

Results

1.

Foreign aid during the COVID-19 pandemic: evidence from Turkey by Güngör, Buğra. Journal of Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, July 2021, Vol. 21 Issue: Number 3 p337-352, 16p; Abstract: ABSTRACTTurkey provided medical aid to more than 70 countries during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. This article explains the distribution of Turkish medical aid across countries relying on a novel dataset which draws on online news published by Turkey’s state-run news agency and a pro-government news outlet between February 1stand July 31st, 2020. The findings show that receiving Turkish medical aid is extensively related to the determinants underlying Turkey’s foreign aid policy. In particular, recipient countries’ historical ties to the Ottoman Empire, their level of imports from Turkey, and their needs based on the state of their general health system are seen to be significant predictors of receiving Turkish medical supplies during the coronavirus pandemic. Regarding partial evidence of cultural similarity, Turkic identity is a predictor of receiving medical aid, whereas Islamic affinity does not have a significant association. Therefore, I find that Turkey has adopted a selective strategy in response to an indiscriminately damaging crisis while keeping a majority of the elements of its foreign aid repertoire in play.; (AN 57824727)
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2.

Outbreak of war memories? Historical analogies of the 1990s wars in discourses about the coronavirus pandemic in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia by Banjeglav, Tamara; Moll, Nicolas. Journal of Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, July 2021, Vol. 21 Issue: Number 3 p353-372, 20p; Abstract: ABSTRACTThe article examines how historical analogies and collective memories of the 1990s wars figured in public discussions during the first wave of the coronavirus crisis in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. The research is based on the analysis of political speeches, media articles and social networks posts, examining the presence – or absence – of war analogies in these sources in the first period of the coronavirus pandemic, from mid-March 2020 to mid-May 2020. The article examines in which ways historical analogies referring to the 1990s wars were used during the coronavirus pandemic in two societies which have a recent war experience. By analysing to what extent and in which ways analogies to the war were used in political and societal discourses in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, this article adds to the existing literature on the use of historical analogies by focusing on the use of war analogies in societies where the war is not an abstract reference, but a recent, lived experience.; (AN 57824719)
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3.

‘Pockets of efficiency’ in a low capacity state: dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic in Romania by Dumitrescu, Lucian. Journal of Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, July 2021, Vol. 21 Issue: Number 3 p373-391, 19p; Abstract: ABSTRACTThe article brings forward the case of Romania’s low capacity state and the troubles it has run into in its attempt to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic. In order to avoid essentialization, the article addresses the question of the public health system, which mirrors Romania’s low capacity state. The article argues that, due to a dearth of resources, the public health system has had a hard time implementing the ‘test, trace, isolate strategy’. States that have effectively implemented such a strategy have been successful in their attempt to curb the community spread of coronavirus. Also, the article seeks to demonstrate that even in a low capacity state, one may run into ‘pockets of efficiency’, that is, public institutions where quality management coexists with neopatrimonial practices. In order to illuminate the existence of such ‘pockets of efficiency’, the article makes a comparison between public hospitals turned into COVID-19 hotspots by poor management. And public hospitals where sound management has kept the SARS-CoV-2 virus at bay. Considering that informality usually takes precedence over formality in low capacity states, the article seeks to find an explanation for the occurrence of ‘pockets of efficiency’ in a prevalent neopatrimonial milieu.; (AN 57824721)
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4.

Defence spending, burden-sharing and strategy in NATO’s Black Sea littoral states: domestic, regional, and international systemic factors by Becker, Jordan. Journal of Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, July 2021, Vol. 21 Issue: Number 3 p393-413, 21p; Abstract: ABSTRACTThe allocation of scarce resources is a grand strategic question – burden-sharing behaviour has clear effects on states’ ability to contribute to collective defence. Both NATO and the European Union encourage members not just to spend more on defence, but to focus those expenditures on equipment modernization and shared operational requirements. After NATO allies formally pledged to improve burden-sharing along these lines in 2014, and EU members followed in 2016, transatlantic debates on defence spending have become increasingly tense, particularly since 2017. What actually drives states’ choices to allocate resources to shared defence priorities? I operationalize transatlantic burden-sharing in line with NATO’s ‘Cash, Capabilities, and Contributions’ approach for a mixed-methods analysis of the burden-sharing behaviour of NATO’s Black Sea littoral states – Bulgaria, Romania, and Turkey. Using a multi-method analytical approach, I find that national and particularly regional political economies drive burden-sharing choices more than geostrategy, at least in the current strategic environment.; (AN 57824724)
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5.

Can China promote stability in the Black Sea Region? by Sanders, Deborah. Journal of Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, July 2021, Vol. 21 Issue: Number 3 p415-436, 22p; Abstract: ABSTRACTChina has become an increasingly important actor in the Black Sea Region (BSR), and this looks set to continue in the future. Beijing has actively engaged with all of the Black Sea states and has looked to invest largely, but not exclusively, in ports and infrastructure projects as part of its Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). This article examines Beijing’s growing influence in the Black Sea and explores the effect this will have on the region. It will be argued that China’s engagement is seen by some of the littoral states as an important way of balancing Russian influence in the region and Beijing’s presence is likely to lead to a recalibration of Russian behaviour in the BSR. Chinese engagement in the Black Sea might therefore serve as a force for stability or at least encourage the continuation of the status quo, by limiting Russian revanchism, as Moscow will be increasingly sensitive to Beijing’s interest and investments.; (AN 57824725)
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6.

Turkish foreign aid to Northern Cyprus: a mother’s blessing or curse? by Ekici, Tufan; Özdemir, Yonca. Journal of Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, July 2021, Vol. 21 Issue: Number 3 p437-455, 19p; Abstract: ABSTRACTThis paper talks about the impact of Turkish aid on the macroeconomic development of Northern Cyprus. Since the physical division of the island of Cyprus in 1974, Turkey has been sending considerable financial aid to the de-facto state in its northern part, but the impact of this aid on local economics and politics has been controversial. We show that foreign aid has not been directly relevant for economic growth of Northern Cyprus. We suggest that persistence of aid, despite its negative impacts, can be explained by Turkey’s geopolitical interests on the island.; (AN 57824723)
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7.

Nationalistic education and its colourful role in intergroup prejudice reduction: lessons from Albania by Peshkopia, Ridvan; Giakoumis, Konstantinos. Journal of Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, July 2021, Vol. 21 Issue: Number 3 p457-480, 24p; Abstract: ABSTRACTContributors to the education-as-enlightenment approach maintain that education helps to create less prejudicial individuals. This conclusion, emanating mainly from data collected in western democracies that apply multicultural education might not apply to countries where education’s primary goal is the establishment of a sense of national unity and belonging. On the one hand, nationalist education could reduce prejudices against groups not targeted by the ethnonationalist narrative – e.g. through positive comments about them or by not mentioning them at all. On the other hand, education might produce more prejudice towards groups targeted as the hostile Other through a nation-building narrative. We test this argument with a simple random sample of a cellphone public opinion survey collected in Albania in 2015. By framing our analysis inside the intergroup contact theory, we build two sets of models, the first explaining respondents’ prejudice levels towards Greeks and the second explaining respondents’ prejudice levels towards homosexuals. We found that more education predicted respondents’ higher prejudice levels towards Greeks, a group targeted by the Albanian ethnonationalist narrative as the hostile Other, whereas it did not significantly affect prejudices towards homosexuals.; (AN 57824722)
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8.

Evaluating the relationship between marginalization and participation in undeclared work: lessons from Bosnia and Herzegovina by Williams, Colin C.; Efendic, Adnan. Journal of Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, July 2021, Vol. 21 Issue: Number 3 p481-499, 19p; Abstract: ABSTRACTThis paper tests competing hypotheses on the relationship between marginalization and participation in undeclared work. The ‘marginalization’ thesis views undeclared work as conducted primarily by marginalized populations among which young, unemployed and economically fragile people dominate. A competing ‘reinforcement’ thesis argues that undeclared work is conducted disproportionately by those in declared jobs and thus that the undeclared economy reinforces, rather than reduces, the inequalities produced by the declared economy. To evaluate who engages in undeclared work and to test these competing theses, data is reported from a 2015 survey of 6,021 randomly selected adult respondents in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Reporting the marginal effects of a Probit regression analysis, the finding is that marginalized groups (the unemployed, younger age groups, those with fewer years in formal education, lower-income households, rural populations and those from poorer regions) are all significantly more likely to participate in undeclared work. The implications for theory and policy are discussed, along with the limitations of the study and future research required.; (AN 57824716)
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9.

Mother Teresa: the saint and her nation by Peshkopia, Ridvan. Journal of Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, July 2021, Vol. 21 Issue: Number 3 p501-502, 2p; (AN 57824718)
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10.

Venizelos: the making of a Greek statesman, 1864-1914 by Veremis, Thanos M.. Journal of Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, July 2021, Vol. 21 Issue: Number 3 p503-504, 2p; (AN 57824720)
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11.

Sovereignty suspended: building the so-called state by Kyris, George. Journal of Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, July 2021, Vol. 21 Issue: Number 3 p505-506, 2p; (AN 57824717)
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8

Strategic Analysis
Volume 45, no. 4, July 2021

Record

Results

1.

India and the Geopolitics of UNSC Permanent Membership by Kaura, Vinay; Singh, Chakravarti. Strategic Analysis, July 2021, Vol. 45 Issue: Number 4 p271-285, 15p; Abstract: AbstractThe United Nations completed 75 years of its existence in 2020. The last 75 years have been a roller coaster ride for this global institution mandated to maintain peace. However, the UN has received widespread criticism for not reforming its various institutions, particularly the United Nations Security Council (UNSC). The G-4 nations which includes India, have led the call for accelerating the long-awaited reform process. This article analyses the history of the UNSC reform process with a particular focus on India’s attempts to become a permanent member to achieve its global ambitions, as well as the major hurdles along the way.; (AN 58124084)
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2.

The Formation of the Indian Diaspora by Kumar, T.K. Manoj; Pillay, D. P. K.. Strategic Analysis, July 2021, Vol. 45 Issue: Number 4 p286-306, 21p; Abstract: AbstractThe Indian Diaspora is one of the world’s largest overseas groupings.The Diaspora is considered India's 30thstate with over 30 million overseas Indians. This article outlines the main strands of its formation, from the first movement of indentured workers and subsequent phases of migration of skilled professionals to the West and of workers to the Persian Gulf.   They remain the single–largest contributor of foreign exchange and development in the country.  Understanding its formation is an essential step for studying the Diaspora and engaging with it. This article aims to do that.; (AN 58124089)
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3.

Transformation of Middle Powers with the Decline of World Hegemony: The Case of Turkey by Sucu, Ali Emre; Safranchuk, Ivan; Nesmashnyi, Alexander; Iskandarov, Qosimsho. Strategic Analysis, July 2021, Vol. 45 Issue: Number 4 p307-320, 14p; Abstract: AbstractTurkey is widely considered to be a middle power in the international system. The authors apply hierarchical, behavioural and ideational approaches to the foreign policy of Turkey: each of the three unveils specific features of Turkey as a middle power in the post-hegemonic world. It is argued that the behavioural approach to studying middle powers should be updated to distinguish ‘benign’ and ‘revisionist’ middle power strategies. The factors contributing to Turkey’s transition from being a benign middle power to being a revisionist one are holistically investigated.; (AN 58124081)
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4.

A Multi-level Approach to Vietnam Foreign Policy: From Security Preoccupation to Middle Power Role by Tinh, Le Dinh. Strategic Analysis, July 2021, Vol. 45 Issue: Number 4 p321-335, 15p; Abstract: AbstractPrior to 1995 when Vietnam joined ASEAN and normalized relationship with the United States, the overriding concern was security as could be well explained by realism. Vietnam has made several critical, strategic moves since 1995 and by 2030 the country may be able to act internationally as an emerging middle power. Taking a multi-level approach and empirical evidences of 35 years of Doi Moi (renovation), this article attempts to clarify as to how Vietnam has been in a better position to ensure the security goal by embarking on an ambitious development strategy and expanding its international role.; (AN 58124087)
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5.

Refugees, Border and Identities: Rights and Habitat in East and Northeast India by Pattanaik, Smruti S.. Strategic Analysis, July 2021, Vol. 45 Issue: Number 4 p336-338, 3p; (AN 58124080)
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6.

The Idea of Civilization and the Making of the Global Order by Ramakrishnan, A. K.. Strategic Analysis, July 2021, Vol. 45 Issue: Number 4 p339-341, 3p; (AN 58124085)
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7.

Full Spectrum: India’s Wars 1972-2020 by Pillay, Divakaran Padma Kumar. Strategic Analysis, July 2021, Vol. 45 Issue: Number 4 p342-344, 3p; (AN 58124088)
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8.

Turkey and China: Political, Economic, and Strategic Aspects of the Relationship by Quamar, Md. Muddassir. Strategic Analysis, July 2021, Vol. 45 Issue: Number 4 p345-347, 3p; (AN 58124090)
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9.

Afghanistan: What Everyone Needs to Know by Asatryan, Georgi. Strategic Analysis, July 2021, Vol. 45 Issue: Number 4 p348-350, 3p; (AN 58124083)
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10.

Infrastructure of Injustice: State and Politics in Manipur and Northeast India by Shimray, Ramachan A.. Strategic Analysis, July 2021, Vol. 45 Issue: Number 4 p351-352, 2p; (AN 58124082)
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11.

The Indo-Soviet Treaty by Subrahmanyam, K.. Strategic Analysis, July 2021, Vol. 45 Issue: Number 4 p353-361, 9p; (AN 58124086)
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12.

Soviet ABM and US-USSR Strategic Debate by Wariavwalla, Bharat. Strategic Analysis, July 2021, Vol. 45 Issue: Number 4 p362-374, 13p; (AN 58124091)
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9

Studies in Conflict and Terrorism
Volume 44, no. 12, December 2021

Record

Results

1.

FARC’s Pursuit of “Taking Power”: Insurgent Social Contracts, the Drug Trade and Appeals to Eudaemonic Legitimation by Phelan, Alexandra. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, December 2021, Vol. 44 Issue: Number 12 p971-993, 23p; Abstract: AbstractThis paper argues that eudaemonic legitimation is a useful tool in understanding how insurgencies seek to justify their “effectiveness” and “performance” vis-à-vis the state in order to enhance authority and mobilise support for their strategic objectives. By examining primary FARC documents, conference and plenary findings, and select interviews with former and active FARC, ELN and M-19 members, it demonstrates how FARC constructed social contracts and integrated illicit financing into its operations as a strategy to appeal to its eudaemonic legitimation in its areas of proto-state influence, in turn aiming to mobilise support and consolidate a full-spectrum normative system. “Effectiveness” in FARC’s strategic approach through rule-setting allowed the organisation to expand to control significant portions of Colombian territory, which to a degree impacted positively on social mobilisation and challenged the government’s legitimacy by consolidating power structures in areas where there was a lack of government authority. FARC further appealed to social and economic “performance” by using revenue from its fundraising activities through engagement in the coca trade and kidnap for ransom to not only strengthen its military capacity, but also implement social initiatives and provide material goods. In turn, FARC was able to develop zones of security through the creation of social contracts in which stable economic practices were able to solidify, contributing in its effectiveness in providing proto-state authority and allowing for insurgent expansion.; (AN 58143783)
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2.

Coca, Clausewitz, and Colombia: The Inadequacy of Micro-level Studies in Explaining FARC Violence Against Civilians During the Colombian Civil War by Bruce-Jones, Tobias; Smith, M.L.R.. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, December 2021, Vol. 44 Issue: Number 12 p994-1021, 28p; Abstract: AbstractStudies of micro-level violence make various claims to universality: namely, that there are patterns of violence in civil wars that are observable across time and space. The analysis of rebel violence against civilians constitutes one of the enduring themes of these studies. By evaluating the actions of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) during the latter half of the Colombian civil war, this paper demonstrates that the claims of micro-level studies are unable to account for FARC’s violence against civilians. In response, this study provides an alternative framework for understanding FARC’s violence. Informed by the theories of Carl von Clausewitz it is possible to comprehend the logic of FARC’s violence against civilians within a strategic framework that aimed to advance the movement’s political goals. However, it also illustrates that FARC was influenced heavily by its involvement in the drugs trade. The main findings are a) that whilst FARC’s acts of violence may have contained similarities to that of other drugs cartels FARC did not become a narco-guerrilla organization, b) the case of FARC demonstrates that ultimately there are no reproducible patterns in war, micro-level or otherwise.; (AN 58143792)
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3.

Divide and Co-Opt: Private Agendas, Tribal Groups, and Militia Formation in Counterinsurgency Wars by Peic, Goran. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, December 2021, Vol. 44 Issue: Number 12 p1022-1049, 28p; Abstract: AbstractRecent research suggests that civilian defense forces (CDFs) – a distinct type of pro-government militia – can help states suppress insurgent movements. Considering the potential benefits, it is understandable why governments would want to use them. However, viewed from the perspective of civilian recruits, militia duty is a perilous side job that pays very little. So, why do civilians sign up to serve in them? This paper argues that civilian private agendas play a major role in facilitating the recruitment of CDFs. Because private agendas are difficult to observe directly, I examine their impact indirectly by identifying tribal groups as a population segment with particularly strong private incentives stemming from intertribal feuds and the concomitant desire to gain an upper hand relative to local rivals. The argument is tested on a novel province-level data set of CDF deployments in Turkey and the Philippines. Statistical analyses of these data show that states recruit over 50 percent more CDFs in regions with even modest tribal presence than in comparable areas without any tribal populations. These findings suggest that private agendas play a significant role in motivating militia recruitment. Private agendas thus help governments to combat macro-level insurgent movements by exploiting micro-level social tensions. The research also sheds light on the makeup of recruits and points to intensification of civilian disputes as likely ramification of CDF deployment in counterinsurgency campaigns.; (AN 58143789)
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4.

Trauma, Trust in Government, and Social Connection: How Social Context Shapes Attitudes Related to the Use of Ideologically or Politically Motivated Violence by Ellis, B. Heidi; Sideridis, Georgios; Miller, Alisa B.; Abdi, Saida M.; Winer, Jeffrey P.. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, December 2021, Vol. 44 Issue: Number 12 p1050-1067, 18p; Abstract: AbstractIn this study we examine how grievances and social connection among Somali immigrants are associated with attitudes towards radicalization to violence. Data was drawn from structured interviews with 213 Somali young adult men living in North America. Structural Equation Modeling was used to test the association of grievances with attitudes in support of political violence, and the mediating role of social connection (ethnic community belonging, attachment to nation of residence, and social comfort seeking online). Both grievances and social connection/disconnection relate to support for political violence, but in complex ways. Findings are discussed in relation to prevention of violent extremism.; (AN 58143788)
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5.

Nuclear Legitimacy: Why Insurgents Seek and Destroy Nuclear Technology by Tschantret, Joshua. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, December 2021, Vol. 44 Issue: Number 12 p1068-1089, 22p; Abstract: AbstractScholars observe that we know little about what motivates non-state actors’ strategic interest in nuclear technology. This article argues that insurgents with ideological ambitions to form new states adopt acquisitive or destructive interests because nuclear power is a symbol of state legitimacy. State-seeking insurgents—separatists and revolutionaries—require domestic constituencies to recognize them as legitimate sovereigns. However, they differ in their need for international legitimation. Separatists’ demand for international acceptance deters them from pursuing nuclear weapons, which poses an international security threat. They will nonetheless attack the state’s nuclear facilities in areas they consider their national homeland to assert the legitimacy of their claims over these regions. Since revolutionaries do not expect international acceptance, they can pursue nuclear technology to enhance their legitimacy among key domestic audiences. Statistical analysis and qualitative examination support these hypotheses.; (AN 58143793)
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6.

Greece’s Ulrike Meinhof: Pola Roupa and the Revolutionary Struggle by Kassimeris, George. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, December 2021, Vol. 44 Issue: Number 12 p1090-1103, 14p; Abstract: AbstractPola Roupa’s arrest in 2016 was the final nail in the coffin of Revolutionary Struggle, the first guerrilla group to emerge on Greece’s terrorist landscape after the 2002 collapse of 17 November, the country’s premier terrorist organisation for almost three decades and one of Europe’s longest-running terror gangs. Drawing on the judicial investigation findings, courtroom testimonies, RS communiqués and interviews with counter-terrorism officials, this article tells the story of Pola Roupa, the first female leader of a Greek terrorist group in an attempt to understand the political reasons and motivational factors that led to her involvement in terrorism. At the same time, the article hopefully contributes to the study and understanding of women and terrorism by providing an insight into the role and experience of a female militant inside Greece’s gender-conservative and overwhelmingly male-dominated armed struggle movement.; (AN 58143780)
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7.

When Extremists Become Violent: Examining the Association Between Social Control, Social Learning, and Engagement in Violent Extremism by Becker, Michael H.. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, December 2021, Vol. 44 Issue: Number 12 p1104-1124, 21p; Abstract: AbstractThis research examines the relationship between social control and social learning variables on involvement in violent vs. non-violent extremism. Using data from the Profiles of Individual Radicalization in the United States (PIRUS) database (n = 1,757), this study presents a series of logistic regressions. Among radicalized individuals, weaker social control and stronger social learning of violence were associated violent over non-violent behavior. These results hold across all models. Taken together, these findings support the role of control and learning theories in identifying correlates of violent and non-violent extremism and suggest the possibility of reciprocal and interaction effects for future work.; (AN 58143790)
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8.

Turkish ISIS and AQ Foreign Fighters: Reconciling the Numbers and Perception of the Terrorism Threat by Yayla, Ahmet S.. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, December 2021, Vol. 44 Issue: Number 12 p1125-1147, 23p; Abstract: AbstractThis article attempts to establish a database of the numbers of the Turkish ISIS and AQ foreign terrorist fighters (FTFs) and their profiles through open sources, available news articles and personal interviews by the author with some former senior government officers; provides insights about the government and public perceptions on Salafi Jihadist terrorist organizations; and studies policy responses concerning returning FTFs and terrorist organizations.; (AN 58143794)
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9.

The Strategic Use of Emotions in Recruitment Strategies of Armed Groups: The Case of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam by Meier, Larissa Daria. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, December 2021, Vol. 44 Issue: Number 12 p1148-1166, 19p; Abstract: AbstractWhat role do emotions play in recruitment strategies employed by armed groups? I argue that armed groups use “emotion work” – the effort to evoke or shape emotions – to recruit new fighters, trying to appeal not only to peoplès self-interest or reason but to their values and normative judgements. I use data from 30 interviews with former members of the LTTE to show that emotions were a central element of their recruitment strategy. To analyze the role of emotions in recruitment, I build on social movement theory and the sociology of emotions and propose an analytical framework linking different types of collective action frames with different emotions they provoke and the mechanisms through which they facilitate recruitment.; (AN 58143779)
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10.

How Do Terrorist Organizations Make Money? Terrorist Funding and Innovation in the Case of al-Shabaab by Levy, Ido; Yusuf, Abdi. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, December 2021, Vol. 44 Issue: Number 12 p1167-1189, 23p; Abstract: AbstractThis paper examines the funding sources of the terrorist group Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen. Using existing research and original interviews, this study outlines al-Shabaab’s history and funding sources. It theorizes that an organization’s capacity to operate in different fields of economic activity drives innovation in funding. Applying a framework for terrorist innovation to al-Shabaab’s funding sources, this study finds support for the theory. Development of intelligence and taxation capabilities is especially prevalent in the al-Shabaab context. Holding territory considerably increases organizational ability to raise funds. Increasing reliance on criminality may compromise an organization’s ideological character and leave it more vulnerable to inter-group competition.; (AN 58143784)
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11.

Black Ops: Islamic State and Innovation in Irregular Warfare by Whiteside, Craig; Rice, Ian; Raineri, Daniele. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, December 2021, Vol. 44 Issue: Number 12 p1190-1217, 28p; Abstract: AbstractThis paper studies non-state militant group emulation and development of a special operation capability that stands in stark contrast to the normal repertoire of guerilla and terror tactics. Building on evidence of one well-documented Islamic State attack in 2012 that fit many of the criteria of a special operation, we analyzed the mission using concepts from strategic studies to understand the decision-making behind it. We then expanded our search of Islamic State operational claims looking for other examples, in order to understand the scope and frequency of Islamic State special operations since 2006. We found solid evidence of at least three Islamic State special operations over a decade: Ramadi, Iraq (2007), Haditha, Iraq (2012), and Abu Ghraib/Taji, Iraq (2013). Using these insights, we present two key levers – leadership and propaganda - used by the Islamic State in the decision-making and centralized distribution of resources to invest in a special operations capability that produced outsized strategic effects. These findings contest the conventional wisdom of the future of insurgency as decentralized structures made up of loose, leaderless networks.; (AN 58143791)
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10

Survival
Volume 63, no. 6, November 2021

Record

Results

1.

The Contested Origin of SARS-CoV-2 by Gronvall, Gigi Kwik. Survival, November 2021, Vol. 63 Issue: Number 6 p7-36, 30p; Abstract: AbstractThis article describes what is known about the origin of SARS-CoV-2, with implications for policy, biological research and public-health surveillance. Theories about the origin include a natural emergence; a laboratory accident with a naturally harvested strain; an accident with a naturally harvested strain modified in a laboratory; and the deliberate creation of a biological weapon. While available scientific evidence points to a natural zoonotic event as the origin of SARS-CoV-2, this paper recommends specific steps governments and scientific institutions should take to address uncertainties about the origin of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as to make all potential causes for a pandemic less likely to produce one in the future. Immediate steps include promoting international scientific collaboration, addressing scientific misinformation and disinformation, fully implementing ‘One Health’ and reining in the illegal wildlife trade.; (AN 58350878)
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2.

The Crisis of Liberalism and the Western Alliance by Freedman, Lawrence. Survival, November 2021, Vol. 63 Issue: Number 6 p37-44, 8p; Abstract: AbstractLiberalism as the ideology of the Western alliance is in crisis. Having seen off Nazism and communism, it gained influence after the end of the Cold War, which produced optimism about security, human rights and global prosperity. Now liberalism, shaken by the financial crisis and the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, is in retreat. Illiberal states, notably China and Russia, are reshaping the international system. Liberalism may not be able to continue to bind allies together, or enable them to cooperate effectively in a severe crisis. There are three counters to a gloomy prognosis, however. Firstly, heightened great-power competition has reinforced rather than undermined the alliance. Secondly, Russia and China have no substantial alliances, and are showing that authoritarian governments face serious problems of their own, including entrenched leaderships. Thirdly, liberalism remains better equipped to adapt to new circumstances.; (AN 58350869)
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3.

Euro-Atlantic Security and the China Nexus by Heisbourg, François. Survival, November 2021, Vol. 63 Issue: Number 6 p45-62, 18p; Abstract: AbstractAs China has emerged over the past decade as a peer competitor of the United States, the bilateral relationship has become confrontational. Given the relatively wide range of possible strategic outcomes, Europe’s primary task is to organise itself for uncertainty. It must also assume that the US will react negatively if Europe is seen as running counter to America’s policy in the Indo-Pacific and build resilience into its policies to deal with sudden shifts in US policy. Europe’s overarching aims should be defending itself against a revisionist Russia, insulating Europe against direct Chinese coercion, helping like-minded countries prevent China from overwhelming the rules-based international order and avoiding a major war between nuclear powers. Despite the acrimony in the China–US relationship, the fear of nuclear annihilation that helped keep the Cold War cold is notably absent. Trust, especially among allies, is therefore paramount.; (AN 58350877)
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4.

Getting Restraint Right: Liberal Internationalism and American Foreign Policy by Deudney, Daniel; John Ikenberry, G.. Survival, November 2021, Vol. 63 Issue: Number 6 p63-100, 38p; Abstract: AbstractLiberalism and its republican precursors provide the largest and best-developed body of restraint theory and practice. Realist, libertarian and other criticisms of liberalism and liberal internationalism fall short on both historical and theoretical grounds. Liberal internationalism has had a profoundly progressive – even revolutionary – impact on the modern world order, advancing the grand transition from a world of empire to a world of nation-states, building an infrastructure of rules and institutions to foster and protect liberal democracy, and generating international coalitions and projects for tackling the gravest threats to world order and humanity. Unlike the schools of thought that make up the Quincy coalition, liberal internationalism places at the centre of its vision the cooperative organisation of international order – led by the United States and other liberal democracies, allies and partners – to defend shared liberal values and manage global problems of interdependence.; (AN 58350884)
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5.

Brief Notices Survival, November 2021, Vol. 63 Issue: Number 6 pe1-e11, 11p; (AN 58350872)
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6.

Negotiating with North Korea … Again by Gallucci, Robert L.. Survival, November 2021, Vol. 63 Issue: Number 6 p101-106, 6p; Abstract: AbstractThe emerging consensus in the United States is that the real US objective in talks with North Korea should no longer be its denuclearisation. The superficially sensible conventional wisdom underlying this position is that Pyongyang learned from America’s adventures in Iraq and Libya that only a nuclear deterrent precludes regime change, and that it would not relinquish something it worked so hard to attain at the negotiating table. These assumptions may still be wrong, and it would be a mistake to pre-emptively surrender an essential objective, especially given that doing so would incentivise Japan and South Korea to acquire nuclear weapons. Washington should carefully explore the possibility that the North would give up its nuclear weapons if it could achieve political, economic and diplomatic integration into the international community and true normalisation of its relations with the US, and prepare for an arduous negotiating process.; (AN 58350866)
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7.

The Perspective from Pyongyang: Limits of Compromise by Lankov, Andrei. Survival, November 2021, Vol. 63 Issue: Number 6 p107-118, 12p; Abstract: AbstractThe denuclearisation of North Korea is unlikely. Neither pressure nor rewards will persuade North Korean decision-makers to surrender their nuclear weapons because they have good reasons to see denuclearisation as tantamount to collective suicide. Therefore, the only realistic goal of the United States and the international community is arms control. There are ways to reward North Korean leaders for their willingness to restrict their nuclear and missile programmes. These include partial removal of sanctions, economic assistance and subsidised investment. However, any deal will be costly, since North Korea will exact maximum compensation for its willingness to accept an arms-control regime. Reaching an agreement also will be time consuming. A grand bargain is unattainable, and the parties will have to take small, incremental steps.; (AN 58350883)
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8.

Engaging North Korea: The Warming-up Phase by Braut-Hegghammer, Målfrid. Survival, November 2021, Vol. 63 Issue: Number 6 p119-125, 7p; Abstract: AbstractNorth Korea and the United States are edging towards re-engagement. They agree in principle on pursuing a phased approach to negotiations but disagree on how to begin and what the end goal should be. A warming-up phase can allow states to informally explore specific options for future engagement. By participating in activities such as table-top exercises, simulations and familiarisation visits, the participants develop a more specific understanding of the purpose and format of the activities and verification measures that might follow a formal agreement. This process engages the technical and military bureaucracies at an early stage. It provides a private setting to raise concerns and address misunderstandings. It is an opportunity to demonstrate goodwill and interest in engagement that does not require concessions. Drawing on past examples, this article suggests specific options for a warming-up phase involving North Korea and the United States.; (AN 58350875)
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9.

Noteworthy Survival, November 2021, Vol. 63 Issue: Number 6 p126-128, 3p; (AN 58350881)
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10.

China Looks at the Korean Peninsula: The ‘Two Transitions’ by Ross, Robert S.. Survival, November 2021, Vol. 63 Issue: Number 6 p129-158, 30p; Abstract: AbstractThere are two power transitions under way on the Korean Peninsula. Firstly, there is a US–China power transition, reflecting China’s emergence as an economic and military power in Northeast Asia. This is challenging US regional dominance. The second transition reflects South Korea’s development of an independent defence capability against North Korea. A consensus has emerged among Chinese scholars and analysts in government think tanks that these two trends have encouraged South Korea to place itself at greater distance from the United States and China, and to pursue an independent policy toward North Korea that supports Chinese policy preferences. Chinese understanding of the dual power transition is reflected in Beijing’s policies toward South Korea, North Korea and denuclearisation. China no longer contributes to North Korea’s diplomatic isolation or to sanctions regimes against it, with implications for US policy.; (AN 58350882)
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11.

Strengthening the US Partnership with the Syrian Democratic Forces by Firmian, Federico Manfredi. Survival, November 2021, Vol. 63 Issue: Number 6 p159-182, 24p; Abstract: AbstractAlmost a year into US President Joe Biden’s term of office, his administration still lacks a clear Syria policy. The persistent lack of a cogent US approach to Syria carries dangerous implications for the people of Syria and the world at large. Going forward, the US ought to chart a more deliberate and consistent path. Despite recent setbacks, the Kurdish-run autonomous administration of north and east Syria still stands as an exceptional model of inclusivity and embryonic democratisation in a deeply troubled region. By providing limited political, economic and military support to that body, the US could redress past failures, regain lost trust among its partners, counter jihadist extremism and help the people of Syria secure a better future.; (AN 58350874)
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12.

Disarming Arguments: Public Opinion and Nuclear Abolition by Rosendorf, Ondrej; Smetana, Michal; Vranka, Marek. Survival, November 2021, Vol. 63 Issue: Number 6 p183-200, 18p; Abstract: AbstractWhile many consider the threat posed by nuclear weapons to be greater than ever, the general public has largely lost interest in the issue of nuclear disarmament. To reinvigorate public support for a nuclear-weapons-free world, disarmament advocates have presented a range of arguments about the necessity of nuclear abolition. This article presents original data from a public-opinion survey of US citizens to examine the relative effectiveness of the most common pro-disarmament arguments. The study found that the least persuasive arguments had to do with the costs of maintaining a nuclear arsenal, the humanitarian impact of nuclear-weapons use, and the threats of nuclear terrorism and nuclear war. The most persuasive arguments related to nuclear-armed ‘rogue states’ and the possibility of nuclear accidents. Political stakeholders and civil-society actors might use these findings to more effectively frame their public messaging.; (AN 58350870)
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13.

Stranger than Fiction: Imagining Our Climate Future by Barry, Ben; Mazo, Jeffrey. Survival, November 2021, Vol. 63 Issue: Number 6 p201-208, 8p; Abstract: AbstractIn How to Avoid a Climate Disaster, Bill Gates shows why a net-zero world is necessary, and how it might be achieved through fostering demand for and the supply of innovation. He argues that technology, policy and markets must be shaped at the same time, and in the same direction. His technocratic approach ignores (explicitly) climate politics and (implicitly) the second-order consequences (including social disruption and violence) of political and technological innovation. Kim Stanley Robinson’s novel The Ministry for the Futureoffers an all-too-plausible example of how today’s climate emergency and attempts to address it might give rise to armed action by insurgent groups, international organisations and governments, and even a transnational insurgency against climate change itself. These complementary portrayals of the path to a sustainable industrial ecosystem for the planet are unlikely to resemble the true course of events in detail, but they may in spirit.; (AN 58350868)
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14.

Colombia’s River of Life and Death by Crandall, Russell. Survival, November 2021, Vol. 63 Issue: Number 6 p209-220, 12p; Abstract: AbstractIn his latest travel-based volume, Magdalena: River of Dreams, explorer and writer Wade Davis chronicles Colombia’s primary river system, the majestic Magdalena. As the author sees it, the river has had a lasting impact on the country’s geographical, historical, environmental, economic and cultural attributes. Davis, a Canadian polymath who has penned nearly two dozen books, first fell in love with Colombia as a teenager during a school trip. But his admiration for the country does not prevent him from tackling some of its more sinister features, including illicit drug trafficking, environmentally reckless petroleum extraction, and right- and left-wing anti-state violence.; (AN 58350879)
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15.

Counter-terrorism and Intelligence by Stevenson, Jonathan. Survival, November 2021, Vol. 63 Issue: Number 6 p221-228, 8p; Abstract: Damascus Station: A NovelDavid McCloskey. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2021. $27.95. 419 pp.The Happy Traitor: Spies, Lies and Exile in Russia – The Extraordinary Story of George BlakeSimon Kuper. London: Profile Books, 2021. £14.99. 270 pp.Errand into the Wilderness of Mirrors: Religion and the History of the CIAMichael Graziano. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2021. $45.00. 251 pp.Hate in the Homeland: The New Global Far RightCynthia Miller-Idriss. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2020. £25.00/$29.95. 263 pp.American Zealots: Inside Right-wing Domestic TerrorismArie Perliger. New York: Columbia University Press, 2020. £22.00/$28.00. 225 pp.Alt-right Gangs: A Hazy Shade of WhiteShannon E. Reid and Matthew Valasik. Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 2020. £24.00/$29.95. 201 pp.The Bureau (French TV series)Éric Rochant, writer and director (with others). Originally released on Canal+. Distributed by Federation Entertainment and Kino Lorber.; (AN 58350873)
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16.

United States by Unger, David C.. Survival, November 2021, Vol. 63 Issue: Number 6 p229-235, 7p; Abstract: The Walls Within: The Politics of Immigration in Modern AmericaSarah R. Coleman. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2021. £28.00/$35.00. 248 pp.Cry Havoc: Charlottesville and American Democracy Under SiegeMichael Signer. New York: PublicAffairs, 2020. $17.99. 400 pp.Our Founders’ Warning: The Age of Reason Meets the Age of TrumpStrobe Talbott. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2020. $24.99. 240 pp.Post-Cold War Revelations and the American Communist Party: Citizens, Revolutionaries, and SpiesVernon L. Pedersen, James G. Ryan and Katherine A.S. Sibley, eds. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2021. £85.00. 272 pp.After Nationalism: Being American in an Age of DivisionSamuel Goldman. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2021. $24.95. 148 pp.; (AN 58350880)
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17.

Europe by Maull, Hanns W.. Survival, November 2021, Vol. 63 Issue: Number 6 p236-242, 7p; Abstract: Future War and the Defence of EuropeJohn R. Allen, Frederick Ben Hodges and Julian Lindley-French. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2021. £25.00. 326 pp.Coalition of the unWilling and unAble: European Realignment and the Future of American GeopoliticsJohn R. Deni. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2021. $75.00. 274 pp.The European Union and the Use of ForceJulia Schmidt. Leiden: Brill, 2020. €160.00/$192.00. 360 pp.Germany’s Role in European Russia Policy: A New German Power?Liana Fix. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2021. £79.99. 246 pp.Project Europe: A HistoryKiran Klaus Patel. Meredith Dale, trans. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020. £19.99. 379 pp.; (AN 58350871)
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18.

Domestic Politics and the Global Balance by Jones, Erik. Survival, November 2021, Vol. 63 Issue: Number 6 p243-252, 10p; Abstract: AbstractThe weakness of American global leadership underscores the primacy of domestic politics. The same forces are at work in Europe and elsewhere. The result is progressive world disorder as national governments turn away from multilateral institutions and partnerships to satisfy powerful domestic constituencies. This shift comes at a cost in terms of effective policymaking at home and abroad at a time when effective international cooperation has never been more important. The challenges to be faced, from climate change to globalisation, can only be tackled in concert. If American and European policymakers are to lead these efforts, they must first rebuild domestic support for multilateral cooperation. Strong domestic agendas, such as the European Union’s ‘Next Generation EU’, are a step in the right direction, but they need to be married to a clear conception of the national interest in promoting world order.; (AN 58350876)
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11

Terrorism and Political Violence
Volume 33, no. 7, October 2021

Record

Results

1.

How Do Terrorists Choose Their Targets for an Attack? The View from inside an Independent Cell by Torres-Soriano, Manuel Ricardo. Terrorism and Political Violence, October 2021, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 7 p1363-1377, 15p; Abstract: ABSTRACTThe present article aims to further our understanding of the process whereby terrorists choose targets for attacks. It offers a case study based on information from a jihadist cell broken up by police in the province of Barcelona, Spain in April 2015 in Operation Caronte. Based on detailed analysis of conversations between cell members, obtained thanks to infiltration by an undercover police officer, it argues that the terrorist brainstorming was informed by four main factors: organizational, contextual, logistical, and geographical. The materialization of the desire to use violence in an attack plan was the dynamic outcome of the way these factors modulated the will of the terrorists.; (AN 57999626)
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2.

Unexpected Rewards of Political Violence: Republican Ex-Prisoners, Seductive Capital, and the Gendered Nature of Heroism by Bergia, Elena. Terrorism and Political Violence, October 2021, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 7 p1378-1398, 21p; Abstract: ABSTRACTThe public debate on politically-motivated violence tends to be dominated by concerns over the societal impact of this type of violence, and the motivations that push individuals to engage in this damaging and dangerous activity. Lesser attention is generally paid to the benefits that political violence may generate for those involved. In this article, I explore one such benefit with reference to the republican armed struggle in Northern Ireland. Using ethnographic data collected in West Belfast and building on Bourdieu’s theory of capital, I introduce the concept of “seductive capital.” Seductive capital was acquired by some male republican volunteers by virtue of their involvement in the armed struggle and the republican prison struggles for political status. Strictly associated with the heroic status of ex-prisoners in nationalist communities, seductive capital could be used upon release to facilitate access to women for occasional encounters or long-term relationships. Unlike male ex-prisoners, female ex-prisoners do not appear to have acquired seductive capital. The article explores the gendered nature of seductive capital in Northern Ireland, showing its connection with anti-colonial traditions, constructs of masculinity and femininity in nationalist discourses, and widespread views on gender that resonate with other social and geographical contexts.; (AN 57999632)
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3.

Another Form of American Exceptionalism? A Comparative Analysis of Terrorism Sting Operations in the US and Abroad by Norris, Jesse J.. Terrorism and Political Violence, October 2021, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 7 p1399-1423, 25p; Abstract: ABSTRACTSting operations can potentially thwart terrorist plots, but could also threaten civil liberties and alienate communities, making them a critical subject for counterterrorism research. Yet despite considerable research on U.S. cases, little is known about terrorism stings elsewhere. How common are such cases abroad, and how many feature strong entrapment claims or result in entrapment-related acquittals? In this study, data are gathered about non-U.S. terrorism stings, each of which is evaluated for entrapment indicators. Results show that, contrary to claims of American exceptionalism, terrorism stings could be identified in twenty-one countries, and the average number of entrapment indicators per case is similar between the U.S. and several countries. In addition, several non-U.S. cases present entrapment claims as strong as some of the most-criticized U.S. cases. However, relatively few non-U.S. terrorism stings (fifty-one) could be identified, while there are 156 U.S. cases. In addition, unlike in the U.S., courts have acquitted defendants on entrapment grounds in a high proportion of non-U.S. cases. Political, cultural, and legal differences between the U.S. and other countries, and certain cross-national commonalities, are identified as likely accounting for these results. Potential implications of these findings for terrorism prevention and legal reform are considered.; (AN 57999642)
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4.

The New-Far-Right Movement in Australia by Hutchinson, Jade. Terrorism and Political Violence, October 2021, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 7 p1424-1446, 23p; Abstract: ABSTRACTAustralia is becoming a growing hotbed for far-right extremism given the rapid proliferation of far-right groups and mainstreaming of extremist thought. Radical Islamist violence within the region has fuelled far-right ultra-nationalistic hatred of Islam and Muslims. Newer far-right groups are increasingly heterogeneous, anti-Muslim and understand the influential power of media to further their narratives. As such, far-right ideology becomes more mainstream and Islamophobia rises in social and political domains. Australia’s newer far-right groups forward their notion of “Australian” identity that they claim is under siege from what they perceive as an encroaching dominance of Islam and Muslims in Australia. This article will explore the ideological landscape of such far-right ultra-nationalist extremist groups and how these narratives normalise hatred against Muslims. I contend that it is the expansion of the far-right identity to include multi-ethnic ultra-nationalists, the manipulation of meta-narratives of “Australian values” in both the social and mainstream media, and the dichotomous notion of “good” and “evil” based on religious-racial politics, that has helped to radicalise the new Australian far-right ultra-nationalist groups against Muslims.; (AN 57999637)
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5.

The Algerian State, Islamist Insurgents, and Civilians Caught in Double Jeopardy by the Violence of the Civil War of the 1990s by Pennell, C. R.. Terrorism and Political Violence, October 2021, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 7 p1447-1468, 22p; Abstract: ABSTRACTDuring the Algerian Civil War of the 1990s responsibility for both targeted assassinations of prominent politicians and political activists and largescale massacres was frequently ascribed to both the government and the Islamic insurgents of the GIA. The same was true of the more mundane but much more numerous level of individuals who fell foul of both sides in the conflict and were frequently the targets of both. Using material from the asylum tribunals of several western countries this article describes how the widespread fear among the Algerian population was the result of the strategies of the government and GIA that both sought to intimidate, punish and exact revenge at a personal level leading to a widespread social dislocation.; (AN 57999633)
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6.

Blinding the Elephant: Combat, Information, and Rebel Violence by Holtermann, Helge. Terrorism and Political Violence, October 2021, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 7 p1469-1491, 23p; Abstract: ABSTRACTHow does combat affect insurgent violence against civilians? Existing studies emphasize the role of combat outcomes, but have not explored the direct effects of various combat events. This article argues that one such event, government attacks on the rebels, has a positive effect on insurgent violence that stems from the logic of guerrilla warfare. In guerrilla wars, government forces tend to rely on informants in finding the insurgents. Their attacks therefore often evince civilian denunciation. To deter future denunciations, the rebels have incentives to subsequently punish the suspected or known denunciator. This argument is probed using detailed original data from Nepal’s Maoist insurgency. A panel analysis shows that government attacks were positively associated with rebel violence against civilians, and especially with violence against suspected informants. Process-tracing evidence further supports the argument, suggesting that the rebels used violence strategically to prevent information leaks and government attacks.; (AN 57999624)
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7.

A Bandit Worth Hunting: Pancho Villa and America’s War on Terror in Mexico, 1916-1917 by Neagle, Michael E.. Terrorism and Political Violence, October 2021, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 7 p1492-1510, 19p; Abstract: ABSTRACTThe September 11, 2001, attacks were not the first time that a private, foreign group attacked the United States mainland. Although not referred to as an act of “terrorism” at the time, the March 1916 raid of Francisco “Pancho” Villa and his men on Columbus, New Mexico, was understood by Americans of the early-twentieth century in much the same way. The discourse of the “bandit,” as Villa was widely described at the time, connoted many of the same meanings that we ascribe to terrorists in the twenty-first century — criminality, incivility, and illegitimacy. This rhetoric served to dehumanize Villa and justified U.S. incursions on Mexican sovereignty in its fruitless pursuit of him and his militia. Moreover, Villa’s political motivations for the attack reflect a modern understanding of terrorism. He sought revenge against the Woodrow Wilson administration for withdrawing its support of him during the Mexican Revolution and tried to goad the United States and Mexico into a wider war. His brief invasion nearly succeeded in bringing about his desired result. American understandings and approaches to Villa mirror many of the same strategies that have been used in the modern war on terror.; (AN 57999643)
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8.

Assessing the Impact of the Global War on Terrorism on Terrorism Threats in Muslim Countries by Henne, Peter S.. Terrorism and Political Violence, October 2021, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 7 p1511-1529, 19p; Abstract: ABSTRACTAfter the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the United States called on Muslims to join it in its struggle against the attacks’ perpetrator, Al Qaeda (AQ). U.S. officials argued that Muslim states’ participation in these efforts could help the United States defeat AQ, but it could also benefit the states themselves by undermining the threat they faced from terrorism. As we are now over ten years out from the beginning of this global war on terrorism, it is possible to both ask and answer the question posed by U.S. demands: did it work? That is, did majority-Muslim states who implemented counterterrorism policies in line with America’s counterterrorism priorities benefit from this, through a reduction in the threat of terrorism? In this article, I argue that Muslim states that adopted policies in line with US priorities would accomplish their primary goal: disrupting Al Qaeda’s ability to carry out attacks. I use a quantitative analysis to demonstrate that states implementing the counterterrorism policies preferred by the United States experienced significantly fewer deaths from terrorist attacks than those that did not. These findings can contribute to debates over the global war on terrorism, as well as broad debates on effective counterterrorism and counterinsurgency tactics.; (AN 57999636)
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9.

Attitudes Towards Outgroups Before and After Terror Attacks by Van Assche, Jasper; Dierckx, Kim. Terrorism and Political Violence, October 2021, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 7 p1530-1545, 16p; Abstract: ABSTRACTIn light of the recent terrorist attacks in Paris and Brussels, the aim of the current set of studies was to examine if attitudes towards terrorists and—by extension—uninvolved outgroups (i.e., Muslims, refugees, and immigrants) changed before vs. after these attacks. In a Belgian student sample (Study 1a), we investigated the impact of the Paris attacks on various facets of outgroup attitudes: feelings towards terrorists, Muslims, and refugees, immigrant trust, immigrant threat, and immigrant prejudice. The impact of the Brussels attacks was studied in a Belgian convenience sample (Study 1b), specifically focusing on feelings towards refugees, refugee trust, refugee threat, and avoidance of contact with refugees. Results from frequentist and Bayesian analyses in both samples revealed no significant short- and long-term longitudinal changes in outgroup attitudes after both the Paris (Study 1a) and Brussels (Study 1b) attacks. We discuss these findings and connect them to the alleged refugee crisis; another recent event that polarized European societies.; (AN 57999623)
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10.

Ethnic External Support and Rebel Group Splintering by Ives, Brandon. Terrorism and Political Violence, October 2021, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 7 p1546-1566, 21p; Abstract: ABSTRACTWhat leads some rebel groups to remain cohesive, while others fragment into multiple rebel groups? A growing literature examines the causes behind fragmented non-state actors and movements. Building on this work, this article examines the relationship between a rebel group and its external supporter and focuses on the extent of ethnic links between the two. It advances a novel argument for why rebel groups that receive external support from non-ethnic supporters are more likely to fragment. Using statistical analysis, I examine the relationship between ethnic and non-ethnic external support and fragmentation from 1975 to 2009. I find that an increasing percentage of co-ethnic external support is negatively associated with rebel group fragmentation. Examining variation in the relationship type that rebel groups and external supporters share provides us a fuller understanding of why some rebel groups remain cohesive and why others fragment.; (AN 57999634)
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11.

The ISIS Reader: Milestone Texts of the Islamic State Movement by Celso, Anthony N.. Terrorism and Political Violence, October 2021, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 7 p1567-1568, 2p; (AN 57999635)
https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=57999635&site=ehost-live

12.

Homegrown: ISIS in America by Shaffer, Ryan. Terrorism and Political Violence, October 2021, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 7 p1569-1570, 2p; (AN 57999644)
https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=57999644&site=ehost-live

13.

Iraq After ISIS: The Challenges of Post-war Recovery by Al-Dayel, Nadia; Anfinson, Aaron. Terrorism and Political Violence, October 2021, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 7 p1571-1573, 3p; (AN 57999641)
https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=57999641&site=ehost-live

14.

The Management of Police Specialized Tactical Units by Gallagher, Martin J.. Terrorism and Political Violence, October 2021, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 7 p1574-1574, 1p; (AN 57999628)
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15.

The Ulster Tales: A Tribute to Those Who Served 1969–2000 by Whitaker, Blake. Terrorism and Political Violence, October 2021, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 7 p1575-1576, 2p; (AN 57999625)
https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=57999625&site=ehost-live

16.

Avoiding the Terrorist Trap: Why Respect for Human Rights is the Key to Defeating Terrorism by English, Richard. Terrorism and Political Violence, October 2021, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 7 p1577-1578, 2p; (AN 57999631)
https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=57999631&site=ehost-live

17.

Key Thinkers of the Radical Right: Behind the New Threat to Liberal Democracy by Shaffer, Ryan. Terrorism and Political Violence, October 2021, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 7 p1579-1580, 2p; (AN 57999629)
https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=57999629&site=ehost-live

18.

Violence and Terrorism in East Africa by Shaffer, Ryan. Terrorism and Political Violence, October 2021, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 7 p1581-1585, 5p; (AN 57999627)
https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=57999627&site=ehost-live

19.

One Man’s Terrorist: A Political History of the IRA by Kennedy, Padraic. Terrorism and Political Violence, October 2021, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 7 p1586-1587, 2p; (AN 57999639)
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20.

The Ecocentrists: A History of Radical Environmentalism by Farrer, Ben. Terrorism and Political Violence, October 2021, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 7 p1588-1589, 2p; (AN 57999640)
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21.

Islamist Terrorism in Europe: A History by Zimmerman, John C.. Terrorism and Political Violence, October 2021, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 7 p1590-1591, 2p; (AN 57999638)
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22.

The Red Mirror: Putin’s Leadership and Russia’s Insecure Identity by Chotiner, Barbara Ann. Terrorism and Political Violence, October 2021, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 7 p1592-1593, 2p; (AN 57999630)
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12

Washington Quarterly
Volume 44, no. 3, July 2021

Record

Results

1.

A Call to Arms: Kim Jong Un and the Tactical Bomb by Panda, Ankit. The Washington Quarterly, July 2021, Vol. 44 Issue: Number 3 p7-24, 18p; (AN 57883322)
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2.

Japan’s New Economic Statecraft by Igata, Akira; Glosserman, Brad. The Washington Quarterly, July 2021, Vol. 44 Issue: Number 3 p25-42, 18p; (AN 57883320)
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3.

All About Access: Solving America’s Force Posture Puzzle by Joyce, Renanah M.; Wasser, Becca. The Washington Quarterly, July 2021, Vol. 44 Issue: Number 3 p45-67, 23p; (AN 57883327)
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4.

Why the United States Is Losing—And Russia and Iran Are Winning by Tierney, Dominic. The Washington Quarterly, July 2021, Vol. 44 Issue: Number 3 p69-87, 19p; (AN 57883321)
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5.

“East Rising, West Falling”: Not So Fast, History Suggests by Sarty, Leigh. The Washington Quarterly, July 2021, Vol. 44 Issue: Number 3 p91-106, 16p; (AN 57883326)
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6.

Russia in the Era of Great Power Competition by Mankoff, Jeffrey. The Washington Quarterly, July 2021, Vol. 44 Issue: Number 3 p107-125, 19p; (AN 57883323)
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7.

How Autocrats Manipulate Online Information: Putin’s and Xi’s Playbooks by Brandt, Jessica. The Washington Quarterly, July 2021, Vol. 44 Issue: Number 3 p127-154, 28p; (AN 57883324)
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8.

Have We Passed the Peak of Sino-Russian Rapprochement? by Lukin, Alexander. The Washington Quarterly, July 2021, Vol. 44 Issue: Number 3 p155-173, 19p; (AN 57883319)
https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=57883319&site=ehost-live

9.

How to Distance Russia from China by Crawford, Timothy W.. The Washington Quarterly, July 2021, Vol. 44 Issue: Number 3 p175-194, 20p; (AN 57883325)
https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=57883325&site=ehost-live

 

14

World Policy Journal
Volume 32, no. 4, December 2015

Record

Results

1.

Latin America on Life Support? World Policy Journal, December 2015, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4 p1-2, 2p; (AN 37471479)
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2.

The Big Question: Fixing Roles: What Are the Challenges Determining Your Country’s Position Within Latin America? by Turzi, Mariano; Canofre, Fernanda; de la Paz Meléndez, Gabriela; Serrano, Lorena Oyarzún; Castillo, Hernán; Mendizabal, Enrique; Munyo, Ignacio; Fontana, Andrés. World Policy Journal, December 2015, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4 p3-8, 6p; (AN 37471473)
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=37471473&site=ehost-live

3.

Imagining Eden by Gurría-Quintana, Ángel. World Policy Journal, December 2015, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4 p10-13, 4p; (AN 37471476)
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=37471476&site=ehost-live

4.

Map Room: Latin Americans on the Move World Policy Journal, December 2015, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4 p14-15, 2p; (AN 37471480)
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=37471480&site=ehost-live

5.

The Hangover: Latin America Recovers After Shot of Success by Ávila, Ricardo. World Policy Journal, December 2015, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4 p17-22, 6p; (AN 37471483)
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=37471483&site=ehost-live

6.

Anatomy: Chinese Investment in South America World Policy Journal, December 2015, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4 p24-25, 2p; (AN 37471471)
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=37471471&site=ehost-live

7.

Goodbye, Venezuela by Reeve, Christopher. World Policy Journal, December 2015, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4 p26-36, 11p; (AN 37471481)
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=37471481&site=ehost-live

8.

The Changing Face of Cuba by Mattingly, Amanda. World Policy Journal, December 2015, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4 p37-49, 13p; (AN 37471482)
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=37471482&site=ehost-live

9.

Free Trade: A Ticket to a Bigger Party by Gurría, Ángel. World Policy Journal, December 2015, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4 p51-56, 6p; (AN 37471470)
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=37471470&site=ehost-live

10.

Nauru: A Cautionary Tale by Sokhin, Vlad. World Policy Journal, December 2015, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4 p58-71, 14p; (AN 37471477)
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=37471477&site=ehost-live

11.

The Dark Net: Policing the Internet’s Underworld by Omand, David. World Policy Journal, December 2015, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4 p75-82, 8p; (AN 37471469)
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=37471469&site=ehost-live

12.

Deadly Interactions by Yayla, Ahmet S.. World Policy Journal, December 2015, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4 p83-91, 9p; (AN 37471475)
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=37471475&site=ehost-live

13.

Open SESAME: A Powerful Light Attracts Middle Eastern Scientists by Blaustein, Richard. World Policy Journal, December 2015, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4 p92-99, 8p; (AN 37471478)
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=37471478&site=ehost-live

14.

Leadership Challenges in a Hyper-Changing World by Genovese, Michael A.. World Policy Journal, December 2015, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4 p100-107, 8p; (AN 37471472)
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15.

Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow by Andelman, David A.. World Policy Journal, December 2015, Vol. 32 Issue: Number 4 p108-118, 11p; (AN 37471474)
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16.

Democracy by Andelman, David. World Policy Journal, September 2012, Vol. 29 Issue: Number 3 p1-2, 2p; (AN 28340185)
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17.

The Big Question: What Is The Biggest Threat To Democracy? by Kaplinski, Jaan; Kathrada, Ahmed; Raza, Raheel; Al-Nafjan, Eman; Wangyal, Lobsang; Hegyi, Gyula; Sha’er, Sawsan; Koukku-Ronde, Ritva. World Policy Journal, September 2012, Vol. 29 Issue: Number 3 p3-7, 5p; (AN 28340186)
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=28340186&site=ehost-live

18.

Viva Democracy! by de Beer, Patrice. World Policy Journal, September 2012, Vol. 29 Issue: Number 3 p9-14, 6p; (AN 28340187)
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=28340187&site=ehost-live

19.

The Art of Dissent: A Chat with Ai Weiwei by Andelman, David. World Policy Journal, September 2012, Vol. 29 Issue: Number 3 p15-21, 7p; (AN 28340188)
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20.

Anatomy: Autocracy Index World Policy Journal, September 2012, Vol. 29 Issue: Number 3 p22-23, 2p; (AN 28340189)
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21.

Afghanistan: Mobilizing for Democracy by Creighton, James. World Policy Journal, September 2012, Vol. 29 Issue: Number 3 p25-36, 12p; (AN 28340190)
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=28340190&site=ehost-live

22.

Map Room: Electoral Fraud in Afghanistan by Hastey, Joshua. World Policy Journal, September 2012, Vol. 29 Issue: Number 3 p28-29, 2p; (AN 28340191)
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23.

Serving Democracy, or America, Abroad? by Kinstler, Linda. World Policy Journal, September 2012, Vol. 29 Issue: Number 3 p37-47, 11p; (AN 28340193)
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24.

Ban on Democracy: A Conversation with Ban Ki-moon World Policy Journal, September 2012, Vol. 29 Issue: Number 3 p49-55, 7p; (AN 28340192)
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25.

Water and Our World by Stirton, Brent. World Policy Journal, September 2012, Vol. 29 Issue: Number 3 p56-67, 12p; (AN 28340194)
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26.

Ivory Coast: Victor’s Justice by Corey-Boulet, Robbie. World Policy Journal, September 2012, Vol. 29 Issue: Number 3 p68-79, 12p; (AN 28340196)
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27.

Basque-ing in Peace by Matloff, Judith. World Policy Journal, September 2012, Vol. 29 Issue: Number 3 p81-88, 8p; (AN 28340195)
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28.

Argentina: Back to Peronism by Schmall, Emily. World Policy Journal, September 2012, Vol. 29 Issue: Number 3 p90-99, 10p; (AN 28340197)
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29.

Turning Porsches into Malbec by Schmall, Emily. World Policy Journal, September 2012, Vol. 29 Issue: Number 3 p97-97, 1p; (AN 28340198)
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30.

Hidden Beneath the Seas by O’Dor, Ron; Berghe, Edward. World Policy Journal, September 2012, Vol. 29 Issue: Number 3 p101-108, 8p; (AN 28340199)
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31.

… For the Sake of Change by Andelman, David. World Policy Journal, September 2012, Vol. 29 Issue: Number 3 p110-119, 10p; (AN 28340200)
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15

World Politics
Volume 73, no. 4, October 2021

Record

Results

1.

WPO volume 73 issue 4 Cover and Back matter World Politics, October 2021, Vol. 73 Issue: Number 4 pb1-b8, 8p; (AN 57738842)
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2.

WPO volume 73 issue 4 Cover and Front matter World Politics, October 2021, Vol. 73 Issue: Number 4 pf1-f9, 9p; (AN 57738839)
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3.

The Partial Effectiveness of Indoctrination in Autocracies by de Juan, Alexander; Haass, Felix; Pierskalla, Jan. World Politics, October 2021, Vol. 73 Issue: Number 4 p593-628, 36p; Abstract: AbstractDictators depend on a committed bureaucracy to implement their policy preferences. But how do they induce loyalty and effort within their civil service? The authors study indoctrination through forced military service as a cost-effective strategy for achieving this goal. Conscription allows the regime to expose recruits, including future civil servants, to intense “political training” in a controlled environment, which should improve system engagement. To test this hypothesis, the authors analyze archival data on over 370,000 cadres from the former German Democratic Republic. Exploiting the introduction of mandatory service in the gdrin 1962 for causal identification, they find a positive effect of conscription on bureaucrats’ system engagement. Additional analyses indicate that this effect likely did not result from deep norm internalization. Findings are more compatible with the idea that political training familiarized recruits with elite preferences, allowing them to behave strategically in accordance with the rules of the game.; (AN 57738838)
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4.

The Generational and Institutional Sources of the Global Decline in Voter Turnout by Kostelka, Filip; Blais, André. World Politics, October 2021, Vol. 73 Issue: Number 4 p629-667, 39p; Abstract: ABSTRACTWhy has voter turnout declined in democracies all over the world? This article draws on findings from microlevel studies and theorizes two explanations: generational change and a rise in the number of elective institutions. The empirical section tests these hypotheses along with other explanations proposed in the literature—shifts in party/candidate competition, voting-age reform, weakening group mobilization, income inequality, and economic globalization. The authors conduct two analyses. The first analysis employs an original data set covering all post-1945 democratic national elections. The second studies individual-level data from the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems and British, Canadian, and US national election studies. The results strongly support the generational change and elective institutions hypotheses, which account for most of the decline in voter turnout. These findings have important implications for a better understanding of the current transformations of representative democracy and the challenges it faces.; (AN 57738840)
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5.

Geographically Targeted Spending in Mixed-Member Majoritarian Electoral Systems by Catalinac, Amy; Motolinia, Lucia. World Politics, October 2021, Vol. 73 Issue: Number 4 p668-711, 44p; Abstract: ABSTRACTCan governments elected under mixed-member majoritarian (mmm) electoral systems use geographically targeted spending to increase their chances of staying in office, and if so, how? Although twenty-eight countries use mmmelectoral systems, scant research has addressed this question. The authors explain how mmm’s combination of electoral systems in two unlinked tiers creates a distinct strategic environment in which a large party and a small party can trade votes in one tier for votes in the other tier in a way that increases the number of seats won by both. They then explain how governing parties dependent on vote trading can use geographically targeted spending to cement it. These propositions are tested using original data from Japan (2003–2013) and Mexico (2012–2016). In both cases, municipalities in which the supporters of governing parties split their ballots as instructed were found to have received more money after elections. The findings have broad implications for research on mmmelectoral systems, distributive politics, and the politics of Japan and Mexico.; (AN 57738841)
https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=57738841&site=ehost-live

6.

Justice as Checks and Balances by Franco-Vivanco, Edgar. World Politics, October 2021, Vol. 73 Issue: Number 4 p712-773, 62p; Abstract: ABSTRACTThe centralization of conflict resolution and the administration of justice, two crucial elements of state formation, are often ignored by the state-building literature. This article studies the monopolization of justice administration, using the historical example of the General Indian Court (gic) of colonial Mexico. The author argues that this court’s development and decision-making process can show us how the rule of law develops in highly authoritarian contexts. Centralized courts could be used strategically to solve an agency problem, limiting local elites’ power and monitoring state agents. To curb these actors’ power, the Spanish Crown allowed the indigenous population to raise claims and access property rights. But this access remained limited and subject to the Crown’s strategic considerations. The author’s theory predicts that a favorable ruling for the indigenous population was more likely in cases that threatened to increase local elites’ power. This article shows the conditions under which the rule of law can emerge in a context where a powerful ruler is interested in imposing limits on local powers—and on their potential predation of the general population. It also highlights the endogenous factors behind the creation of colonial institutions and the importance of judicial systems in colonial governance.; (AN 57738843)
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7.

Why Non-Democracy Engages with Western Democracy-Promotion Programs by Cho, Sungmin. World Politics, October 2021, Vol. 73 Issue: Number 4 p774-817, 44p; Abstract: ABSTRACTBetween the mid-1990s and the mid-2010s, the Chinese government was distinctly open to the Western offer of democracy-assistance programs. It cooperated with a number of Western organizations to improve the rule of law, village elections, administrative capacity, and civil society in China. Why did the Chinese government engage with democracy promoters who tried to develop these democratic attributes within China? The author argues that the government intended to use Western aid to its advantage. The Chinese Communist Party had launched governance reforms to strengthen its regime legitimacy, and Chinese officials found that Western democracy assistance could be used to facilitate their own governance-reform programs. The article traces the process of how the government’s strategic intention translated into policies of selective openness, and includes evidence from firsthand interviews, propaganda materials, and research by Chinese experts. The findings show how democracy promoters and authoritarian leaders have different expectations of the effects of limited democratic reform within nondemocratic systems. Empirically, reflecting on the so-called golden years of China’s engagement with the West sheds new light on the Chinese Communist Party’s survival strategy through authoritarian legitimation.; (AN 57738837)
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