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Journal titles: ARMED FORCES & SOCIETY --- DYNAMICS OF ASYMMETRIC CONFLICT

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1

Armed Forces & Society
Volume 42, no. 4, October 2016

Record

Results

1.

Sanction Failure: Economic Growth, Defense Expenditures, and the Islamic Republic of Iran by McDonald, Bruce D.; Reitano, Vincent. Armed Forces & Society, October 2016, Vol. 42 Issue: Number 4 p635-654, 20p; Abstract: Political actors have assumed that economic sanctions hinder a nation’s stability by reducing its economic growth, though history has shown otherwise. One potential explanation for this phenomenon is that any decline in a growth is offset by the economic benefit they receive from a response of increased militarization. Using a defense-driven model, we test this explanation with data Iranian from 1959 to 2007. The findings show that economic sanctions have limited the development of Iran, but the influence of an increasing defense sector offsets the sanctions, suggesting sanctions may be ineffective due to the substitution effect from defense expenditures.; (AN 39916943)
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2.

Coping Styles and Combat Motivation During Operations: An IDF Case Study by Ben-Shalom, Uzi; Benbenisty, Yizhaq. Armed Forces & Society, October 2016, Vol. 42 Issue: Number 4 p655-674, 20p; Abstract: The characteristic challenges of combat lead military personnel to develop adaptive coping styles that are different from coping styles used in routine life. This contention is explored using data collected from Israel Defense Forces conscript and reserve soldiers during intense military operations. The results of this study support this claim, in particular concerning faith. Coping styles were also correlated with combat motivations and measures of positive and negative emotions. It seems that a well-adapted soldier may use unique coping styles that, although perhaps not understood by outsiders, can contribute to his capacity to carry out his undertakings. A better understanding of such a state of mind should prove valuable for military leaders and religious experts.; (AN 39916946)
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3.

Toward a Classification of Managing Religious Diversity in the Ranks: The Case of the Turkish and Israeli Armed Forces by Rosman, Elisheva. Armed Forces & Society, October 2016, Vol. 42 Issue: Number 4 p675-695, 21p; Abstract: Military establishments view religious soldiers with mixed feelings and must contend with the specific dilemmas these soldiers present. This article suggests what might influence the managing of religious diversity in the ranks, using the idea of dimensions of isolation. The more removed a military is from society, the more likely it is to utilize internal mechanisms when dealing with religious soldiers. The less removed it is from society, the more likely it will be to turn to external mediating mechanisms in this regard. Using three dimensions of isolation (physical, temporal, and psychological), this article discusses the treatment of religious troops in the Israeli and Turkish cases. After exploring what can be learned from these cases regarding the accommodation of religious soldiers, the article concludes with some suggestions for future research.; (AN 39916944)
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4.

Learning From Others? Emulation and Change in the Italian Armed Forces Since 2001 by Coticchia, Fabrizio; Moro, Francesco Niccolò. Armed Forces & Society, October 2016, Vol. 42 Issue: Number 4 p696-718, 23p; Abstract: How does military change take place in states that are not able to develop autonomous solutions? How does transformation occur when limited resources are available? What are the “sources of military change” for armed forces that do not possess the (cognitive and material) resources that are essential for autonomous development? In articulating an answer to these questions, this article draws from the theoretical debate on interorganizational learning and looks at the mechanisms that drive “learning from others.” We argue that adaptation and organizational learning often had to look for, and then try and adapt, off-the-shelf solutions that required relatively more limited resources. Empirically, the article focuses on the Italian Armed Forces, which have rarely attracted scholarly attention, although it emerged from almost total lack of activity in the Cold War to extended deployments in the 2000s.; (AN 39916947)
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5.

Financial Dereliction of Duty: Are Charities That Aid Servicemen and Veterans Systematically Mismanaged? by Webb, Natalie J.; Abzug, Rikki. Armed Forces & Society, October 2016, Vol. 42 Issue: Number 4 p719-740, 22p; Abstract: Charity watchdogs and the media level serious allegations of mismanagement of funds at charities serving former and current members of the U.S. armed services, affecting service recipients, families, donors, grantors, foundations, and taxpayers. To examine these allegations, we use two approaches from the literature to assess nonprofit financial effectiveness: the organization’s ability to gain resources and to sustain activities. We mirror the approach of charity raters, whose measures are widely available to the public. Using GuideStar/Internal Revenue Service data, we compare fund-raising expenditures, assets, and financial sustainability of large national military and veterans nonprofits to a random sample of national nonprofits. We apply propensity score matching and compare organizations similar in size, age, and other factors. We find little difference between military and veterans charities and other nonprofits and provide an improved method for evaluating the financial health of nonprofits across academic discipline, nonprofit field of service, and within or among countries.; (AN 39916940)
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6.

U.S. Marines’ Attitudes Regarding Cross-Cultural Capabilities in Military Operations: A Research Note by Holmes-Eber, Paula; Tarzi, Erika; Maki, Basema. Armed Forces & Society, October 2016, Vol. 42 Issue: Number 4 p741-751, 11p; Abstract: Cross-cultural competence not only emphasizes building specific skill sets such as language proficiency or negotiation skills, but also on changing the military's attitudesto other cultures by emphasizing the value and importanceof cultural skills for successful military operations. In contrast to developing cultural skills, the task of shifting cultural attitudes is a far more complex process. Using empirical data from a survey of 2,406 Marines, this paper seeks to identify some of the social, demographic and experiential factors that influence military service members' attitudes to the value of culture in military operations. The authors found that of the demographic factors tested, only education and commissioning were positively related to attitudes. The greatest predictors were experiential factors: language skills, a multicultural background, travel experience and frequency of interaction with the local population during a previous deployment. Deployment alone was not a predictor. Cultural training was not related to attitudes, although satisfaction with the cultural training was a predictor of positive attitudes.; (AN 39916942)
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7.

Book Review: U.S. Army Psychiatry in the Vietnam War: New Challenges in Extended Counterinsurgency Warfare by Gal, Reuven. Armed Forces & Society, October 2016, Vol. 42 Issue: Number 4 p752-755, 4p; (AN 39916941)
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8.

Book Review: Living Legends and Full Agency: Implications of Repealing the Combat Exclusion Policy by Brownson, Connie. Armed Forces & Society, October 2016, Vol. 42 Issue: Number 4 p756-759, 4p; (AN 39916945)
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2

Central Asian Survey
Volume 36, no. 2, April 2017

Record

Results

1.

Engagement with empire as norm and in practice in Kazakh nomadic political culture (1820s–1830s) by Martin, Virginia. Central Asian Survey, April 2017, Vol. 36 Issue: Number 2 p175-194, 20p; Abstract: ABSTRACTThis article offers an analysis of the Kazakh nomadic political culture of the 1820s–30s with focus on two issues: (1) service and loyalty as elements of Kazakh engagement with the Russian Empire; and (2) the place in local political practice of the regional administrative offices (diwans) created for Middle Horde Kazakh nomads in 1822. While Russia’s goal was ‘bureaucratization’ and creation of ‘order’ in the steppe, in part through directing nomads to engage with the diwanand its elected Kazakh officials, Kazakh political actors variously embraced and rejected formal structures, and continued to define relevant norms and practices of governance. The analysis challenges both statist and nationalist narratives of nineteenth-century Kazakh steppe history by acknowledging the complexities of the Kazakh nomadic experience of empire-building. The ultimate purpose is to suggest new approaches for interpreting historical change throughout the nineteenth century and into the twentieth.; (AN 41729655)
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2.

Venerating the pir: patron saints of Muslim ceramists in Uzbekistan by Kikuta, Haruka. Central Asian Survey, April 2017, Vol. 36 Issue: Number 2 p195-211, 17p; Abstract: ABSTRACTIn some Central Asian oasis towns, the patron saints of craftsmen, known as pirs, have continued to be venerated, despite the repression of Islam and changes to the industrial structure during the Soviet Era. This paper analyses the social function and individual significance of pirveneration in the modern era, using ethnographic observations and interviews conducted in a ceramics town in Uzbekistan. Today, many old customs practised in pottery studios have become mere formalities, and the controlling role of the pirs over ceramist groups is declining. However, this is not necessarily indicative of an immediate decline in the pirs’ power. Some ceramists believe their highly skilled masters to be quasi-pirs and that the pirprovides them with desirable goals, in addition to an ideal form to which to aspire.; (AN 41729653)
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3.

Coercive capacity, land reform and political order in Afghanistan by Murtazashvili, Ilia; Murtazashvili, Jennifer. Central Asian Survey, April 2017, Vol. 36 Issue: Number 2 p212-230, 19p; Abstract: ABSTRACTThis article compares four historical periods in Afghanistan to better understand whether land reform in the post-2001 context will improve prospects for political order. Its central finding is that political order can be established without land reform provided that the state is able to establish and maintain coercive capacity. However, the cost of establishing political order mainly through coercion is very low levels of economic development. We also find that when land reform was implemented in periods of weak or declining coercive capacity, political disorder resulted from grievances unrelated to land issues. In addition, land reforms implemented in the context of highly centralized political institutions increased property insecurity. This suggests the importance of investing in coercive capacity alongside land reform in the current context but also that establishing inclusive political institutions prior to land reform will increase its chances of success.; (AN 41729654)
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4.

Pathways to child work in Tajikistan: narratives of child workers and their parents by Akilova, Mashura. Central Asian Survey, April 2017, Vol. 36 Issue: Number 2 p231-246, 16p; Abstract: ABSTRACTA recent child-work study by the International Labour Organization reports that 27% of children in Tajikistan ages 5–17 worked in 2013. Although children worked in agriculture or performed household chores in Soviet Tajikistan, child work for pay is a relatively new phenomenon in modern Tajikistan. This study examines the pathways to child work and the families’ perceptions of child work experiences. Some of the main findings of this study are the themes connected to normalization and acceptance of child work in Tajikistan. These are explained by expectations placed on children at the social, family and personal levels that are in turn affected by macroeconomic forces that are by-products of the transitional economy. The study also explores differences in expectations by gender, age and area of residence.; (AN 41729656)
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5.

Gender and the academic profession in contemporary Tajikistan: challenges and opportunities expressed by women who remain by Kataeva, Zumrad; DeYoung, Alan J.. Central Asian Survey, April 2017, Vol. 36 Issue: Number 2 p247-262, 16p; Abstract: ABSTRACTThis article attempts to describe the deleterious impact of higher educational changes affecting female faculty members working in Tajik universities in the post-Soviet era. Over the past two decades, the social and economic position women gained during Soviet times has significantly eroded, bringing enormous challenges to education and higher education access, completion and staffing. The demographic and cultural marginalization of women here has negatively impacted university teaching opportunities and the status of women faculty members. Ethnographic interviews – along with relevant secondary data – reveal that despite various official gender-equity policies announced by the state, female participation issues remain prominent in the university. Our interviewees also report continued difficulty entering higher faculty ranks and leadership positions in university. However, significant numbers of women are still to be found there, and they report a workable compromise between being professional educators and trying to navigate a local culture that is becoming more ‘traditional’.; (AN 41729657)
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6.

Debating gender and Kazakhness: memory and voice in poetic duel aytisbetween China and Kazakhstan by Salimjan, Guldana. Central Asian Survey, April 2017, Vol. 36 Issue: Number 2 p263-280, 18p; Abstract: ABSTRACTAytisis a central component of Kazakh oral literature. It is a duelling performance of improvised oral poetry between two aqins (poets, or bards) accompanying themselves on the dombra, a two-stringed plucked instrument. This article analyses contending issues in a transnational aytisbetween Chinese and Kazakhstani aqins, and explores how gender plays into the complex interplay of transnational identity politics, nationalism, performer positionality, and the preservation of intangible cultural heritage. This article argues that, though minority actors are subject to state-patronized national projects and the gender paradigms those projects entail, they can also obtain empowerment from performing tradition as a way to legitimize their status as culture producers and flexible citizens. Situated as the guardians of a constructed gender balance in society, women performers of oral tradition occasionally find themselves with opportunities to transgress the boundaries of their national and gender norms.; (AN 41729659)
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7.

Afghan modern: the history of a global nation by Roberts, Flora. Central Asian Survey, April 2017, Vol. 36 Issue: Number 2 p281-283, 3p; (AN 41729661)
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8.

The social process of globalization: return migration and cultural change in Kazakhstan by Satlykgylyjova, Maya. Central Asian Survey, April 2017, Vol. 36 Issue: Number 2 p283-285, 3p; (AN 41729658)
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9.

Staying at home: identities, memories and social networks of Kazakhstani Germans by Brown, Michael. Central Asian Survey, April 2017, Vol. 36 Issue: Number 2 p285-287, 3p; (AN 41729662)
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10.

Despite cultures: early Soviet rule in Tajikistan by Samie, August. Central Asian Survey, April 2017, Vol. 36 Issue: Number 2 p287-289, 3p; (AN 41729660)
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11.

Collectivization and social engineering: Soviet administration and the Jews of Uzbekistan, 1917–1939 by Kamp, Marianne. Central Asian Survey, April 2017, Vol. 36 Issue: Number 2 p289-291, 3p; (AN 41729663)
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3

China Quarterly
Volume 229, no. 1, March 2017

Record

Results

1.

Migration and Popular Resistance in Rural China: Wukan and Beyond by Lu, Yao; Zheng, Wenjuan; Wang, Wei. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p1-22, 22p; Abstract: AbstractThis study draws on a case study of Wukan and interviews with migrants and peasants in other sites to examine how migration shapes popular resistance in migrant-sending communities (i.e. rural China). Findings demonstrate multidimensional roles played by migrants and returned migrants who act as a vehicle of informational and ideological transmission and at times directly participate in or even lead rural resistance in origin communities. Both the transmission and participation processes foster political consciousness and action orientations among peasants. The importance of migrants is exemplified in the Wukan protests but is also found in other settings under study. In general, migrants represent a latent political force that acts upon serious grievances back home. The findings provide a useful lens for understanding the diffusion of popular resistance and the linkage between urban and rural activism in China.; (AN 41486329)
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2.

Whither Rural China? A Case Study of Gao Village by Gao, Mobo. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p23-43, 21p; Abstract: AbstractThis case study of Gao Village has two aims: to provide an update on Gao Village since 1997, when Gao Village (Gao 1999, 2014) leaves off, and to ponder the future direction of rural China. The article begins with an update on the development of Gao Village from the late 1990s up to 2015, dealing with several major thematic topics such as demography, family and marriage, living standards, education and health care. Using empirical evidence gathered during several years of fieldwork as background, the paper then moves on to discuss the future direction of rural China. This second part covers the current intellectual and policy debate on two crucial issues: land ownership and urbanization. The paper concludes that the Chinese state is still undecided on a grand narrative: whether to travel further in the direction of full-scale capitalism or whether to retain some kind of socialist collectivism.; (AN 41486318)
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3.

The Role of Tunqin Guanxiin Building Rural Resilience in North China: A Case from Qinggang by Gao, Yan; Fennell, Shailaja. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p44-63, 20p; Abstract: AbstractThis paper explores the role of guanxi, particularly in its special form of tunqin, in building rural resilience in a poverty-stricken county in north China. The emphasis of this paper is placed on the nature and function of such guanxi. By presenting how guanxiis maintained, this paper also analyses the impact and effectiveness of local guanxias a strategy to cope with poverty. Whereas tunqin guanxiappears to have built rural resilience in order to cushion villagers against life's upheavals, the maintenance of rural guanxidiminishes this resilience as scarce resources are spent on the exchange of cash gifts, thus aggravating local poverty.; (AN 41486334)
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4.

“Stressing Out”: Cadre Calibration and Affective Proximity to the CCP in Reform-era China by Mertha, Andrew. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p64-85, 22p; Abstract: AbstractMight authoritarian one-party systems experience something akin to party identification – or affective proximity to the Party – that waxes and wanes over time? Such cycles do not centre on elections but on the politics of succession, new policy initiatives and ad hoc housecleaning, and their focus would be officials within the system as opposed to the electorate outside it. I argue that a key mechanism animating such variation in party identification of Chinese Communist Party (CCP) cadres lies within the recurring rectification efforts seeking to temper these individuals and make them more submissive to the larger political goals of the Party centre. Such priming is largely an in-house phenomenon, taking place increasingly deeper within the CCP apparatus. This process tends to involve an extensive arsenal of institutional mechanisms that constitute a particularly big stick and within which pressures to comply can be uncomfortable, even excruciating. Normative elements of these movements, such as the language and substantive written materials used during study, analysis and self-criticism are predominantly in the service of enhancing the sheer domineering quality of the Party vis-à-vis the individuals that make up its ranks. I explore this through an examination of the three stresses (san jiang) campaign of 1998–2002.; (AN 41486317)
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5.

Navigation, Circumvention and Brokerage: The Tricks of the Trade of Developing NGOs in China by Gåsemyr, Hans Jørgen. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p86-106, 21p; Abstract: AbstractChinese NGOs face strong coercive pressures and limitations yet have still emerged as notable actors in several issue areas. This article studies why and explains how a group of NGOs working on AIDS-related issues have been able to progress into relatively large and vibrant operations. It documents how NGO leaders have learned to navigate opportunities and risks, circumvent formal restrictions and broker pragmatic and largely informal arrangements that have enabled their organizations to grow and advance within China's authoritarian settings. The article contributes to the literature on Chinese NGO development and new institutionalism theory, and introduces a framework for studying NGOs based on their organizational forms and activities.; (AN 41486328)
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6.

CQY volume 229 Cover and Back matter The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 pb1-b2, 2p; (AN 41486326)
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7.

CQY volume 229 Cover and Front matter The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 pf1-f5, 5p; (AN 41486340)
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8.

Reforming China's State-owned Enterprises: From Structure to People by Lin, Li-Wen. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p107-129, 23p; Abstract: AbstractThe Chinese Communist Party has recently unveiled its new agenda for state-owned enterprise (SOE) reform. Most attention to date has focused on structural reform through the so-called “mixed ownership” policy. This article is to direct attention to a critically important yet much less analysed item on the SOE reform agenda: the professionalization of the SOE executive personnel. This article provides an empirical study on the managerial elite of China's financial and non-financial SOEs. The findings suggest a politically constrained management approach in the Chinese state-owned sector. Moreover, an innovative analysis of the SOE executive career patterns reveals that the state-controlled banks and industrial SOEs employ divergent human resource management methods. The anatomy of the SOE managerial elite in this article provides a timely evaluation of the recent SOE reform policy and a richer understanding of China's state-owned sector from a comparative capitalism perspective.; (AN 41486319)
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9.

Facilitating Public Service Provision: The Emerging Role of Municipal Television News in China by Chen, Dan. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p130-149, 20p; Abstract: AbstractDespite strict state controls, negative news about local officials is reported in China. Faced with political constraints and the incentive and pressure to earn profits, municipal television news programmes have developed and adopted the life news model (minsheng xinwen), which aims to help citizens solve problems. The production process of this news model has transformed the political role of the broadcast media at the local level. Many life news reports focus on disputes between citizens and local officials. Thus, addressing citizen grievances essentially facilitates public service provision. Based on an ethnographic case study of a municipal television news programme, this article finds that the production process of life news reports can facilitate public service provision by correcting local officials’ behaviour, regardless of whether the news reports are eventually broadcast. This unintended role is a result of the power negotiation between local officials and journalists who face immense commercial pressure.; (AN 41486341)
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10.

Precious Son, Reliable Daughter: Redefining Son Preference and Parent–Child Relations in Migrant Households in Urban China by Ling, Minhua. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p150-171, 22p; Abstract: AbstractThis article examines the parent–child relations within rural-to-urban migrant households to explore the continuations and changes in the patrilineal family system under the forces of migration and urbanization in late-socialist China. Based on ethnographic data collected between 2008 and 2015 in Shanghai, it takes a processual approach to understand son preference as a contextualized family practice and examines four aspects of parent–child relations in migrant households: reproductive strategy, childrearing practices, educational investment, and parental expectation of adult children. Through exploring intimate negotiations between migrant parents and their children over material and emotional resources at different life stages, this article demonstrates how the gendered parent–child relations in migrant households in Shanghai have been shifting away from the traditional focus on sons and gradually giving way to pragmatic adjustments and emotional redefinition under the forces of socialist institutions and capitalist markets.; (AN 41486345)
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11.

Inequalities in the Pathway to College in China: When Do Students from Poor Areas Fall Behind? by Loyalka, Prashant; Chu, James; Wei, Jianguo; Johnson, Natalie; Reniker, Joel. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p172-194, 23p; Abstract: AbstractInequalities in college access are a major concern for policymakers in both developed and developing countries. Policymakers in China have largely tried to address these inequalities by helping disadvantaged students successfully transition from high school to college. However, they have paid less attention to the possibility that inequalities in college access may also arise earlier in the pathway to college. The purpose of this paper is to understand where inequalities emerge along the pathway to college in China, focusing on three major milestones after junior high. By analysing administrative data on over 300,000 students from one region of China, we find that the largest inequalities in college access emerge at the first post-compulsory milestone along the pathway to college: when students transition from junior high to high school. In particular, only 60 per cent of students from poor counties take the high school entrance exam (compared to nearly 100 per cent of students from non-poor counties). Furthermore, students from poor counties are about one and a half times less likely to attend academic high school and elite academic high school than students from non-poor counties.; (AN 41486320)
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12.

Government Work Reports: Securing State Legitimacy through Institutionalization by Wang, Zhen. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p195-204, 10p; Abstract: AbstractRelying on fieldwork conducted in two provinces, this article provides a systemic study of China's Government Work Reports (GWRs), examining their function, format, how they are formulated and implemented, their content and their research values. Whilst the existing literature mostly focuses on central government reports, this research integrates GWRs from all administrative levels. I argue that over time, the GWRs have developed into a highly institutionalized nationwide system with two important aspects – local elites’ autonomy in setting work agendas, and their compliance with central government policy priorities. Additionally, my study shows that by using quantifiable targets and celebrating achievements framed in concrete statistics, the GWRs help to sustain the legitimacy of the party-state. Finally, my study finds GWRs to be a versatile scholarly resource that can be used for various research interests and methods.; (AN 41486331)
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13.

Database Green: Software, Environmentalism and Data Flows in China by Tarantino, Matteo; Zimmermann, Basile. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p205-217, 13p; Abstract: AbstractSignificant efforts towards environmental transparency have been made by the Chinese government since 2008. This paper focuses on the technical decisions shaping a database of official pollution information built and operated by a Chinese NGO known as the Institute of Public and Environmental Affairs (IPE). Issues of standardization, power distribution and institutional fragmentation are discussed. The paper illustrates a case of NGOs integrating enforcement capabilities as data centres amidst the growing reliance on processes of informational governance of environmental issues.; (AN 41486316)
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14.

China Scholars and Twitter by Sullivan, Jonathan. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p218-228, 11p; Abstract: AbstractSituating external engagement within the broader context of developments in Western higher education (HE) and technologies that are changing many aspects of academic life, this research note draws on the experiences of a large number of China scholars to assess the merits of Twitter for individual academics and the field as whole. Celebrating its tenth anniversary in March 2016, Twitter has shaken off its earlier image of celebrity stalking and inane ephemera and has become a tool used by many professionals working on China. Despite initial scepticism, many academics have recognized the utility of Twitter for various professional activities, including networking, increasing research visibility, gathering and disseminating information, and building a public profile. As external engagement activities become a routine expectation for academics in many Western universities, social media like Twitter have drawn attention as potentially useful tools. However, there are numerous obstacles to effective use, which this note addresses.; (AN 41486310)
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15.

Book Review: China in the Era of Xi Jinping: Domestic and Foreign Policy Challenges by Lampton, David M.. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p229-230, 2p; (AN 41486315)
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16.

Book Review: Useful Complaints: How Petitions Assist Decentralized Authoritarianism in China by Cai, Yongshun. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p230-232, 3p; (AN 41486314)
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17.

Book Review: Shadow Banking in China by Hsu, Sara. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p232-233, 2p; (AN 41486333)
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18.

Book Review: Law and Fair Work in China by Enjuto Martinez, Regina. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p233-235, 3p; (AN 41486325)
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19.

Book Review: Victim–Offender Reconciliation in the People's Republic of China and Taiwan by Jiang, Jue. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p235-236, 2p; (AN 41486312)
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20.

Book Review: The Rebirth of the Moral Self: The Second Generation of Modern Confucians and Their Modernization Discourses by Clower, Jason. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p237-238, 2p; (AN 41486339)
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=41486339&site=ehost-live

21.

Book Review: Social Ethics in a Changing China: Moral Decay or Ethical Awakening? by Angle, Stephen C.. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p239-240, 2p; (AN 41486324)
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=41486324&site=ehost-live

22.

Book Review: Infectious Change: Reinventing Chinese Public Health after an Epidemic by Kaufman, Joan. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p240-242, 3p; (AN 41486313)
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=41486313&site=ehost-live

23.

Book Review: Chinese Student Migration, Gender and Family by Yang, Chongmin. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p242-244, 3p; (AN 41486337)
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=41486337&site=ehost-live

24.

Book Review: Oil and Water: Being Han in Xinjiang by Joniak-Lüthi, Agnieszka. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p244-245, 2p; (AN 41486323)
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25.

Book Review: Frontier Livelihoods: Hmong in the Sino-Vietnamese Borderlands by Baldanza, Kathlene. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p245-247, 3p; (AN 41486335)
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26.

Book Review: Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Taiwan by Cabestan, Jean-Pierre. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p247-248, 2p; (AN 41486342)
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27.

Book Review: China–Japan Relations after World War Two: Empire, Industry and War, 1949–1971 by Lee, Joyman. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p248-250, 3p; (AN 41486327)
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28.

Book Review: Maoism at the Grassroots: Everyday Life in China's Era of High Socialism by Thornton, Patricia M.. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p250-251, 2p; (AN 41486343)
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29.

Book Review: Negotiating Socialism in Rural China: Mao, Peasants, and Local Cadres in Shanxi 1949–1953 by DeMare, Brian. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p251-253, 3p; (AN 41486309)
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30.

Book Review: Revolution and Its Narratives: China's Socialist Literary and Cultural Imaginaries, 1949–1966 by Wang, Pu. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p253-255, 3p; (AN 41486332)
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31.

Book Review: Scythe and the City: A Social History of Death in Shanghai by Asen, Daniel. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p255-257, 3p; (AN 41486321)
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32.

Book Review: Changing Chinese Masculinities: From Imperial Pillars of State to Global Real Men by Moskowitz, Marc L.. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p257-258, 2p; (AN 41486344)
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33.

Book Review: The Fisher Folk of Late Imperial and Modern China: An Historical Anthropology of Boat-and-Shed Living by Baker, Hugh D. R.. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p258-260, 3p; (AN 41486330)
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34.

Book Review: Creativity Class: Art School and Culture Work in Postsocialist China by Clark, John. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p260-262, 3p; (AN 41486322)
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=41486322&site=ehost-live

35.

Book Review: The Catholic Invasion of China: Remaking Chinese Christianity by Laamann, Lars Peter. The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p262-264, 3p; (AN 41486311)
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36.

Books Received The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p265-266, 2p; (AN 41486336)
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37.

Notes on Contributors The China Quarterly, March 2017, Vol. 229 Issue: Number 1 p267-268, 2p; (AN 41486338)
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4

Civil Wars
Volume 18, no. 4, October 2016

Record

Results

1.

Conflict Studies and Causality: Critical Realism and the Nomothetic/Idiographic Divide in the Study of Civil War by van Ingen, Michiel. Civil Wars, October 2016, Vol. 18 Issue: Number 4 p387-416, 30p; Abstract: AbstractThe study of civil war has increased exponentially during the post-cold war period. This has not, however, resulted in greater levels of consensus with regard to the causes and nature of this phenomenon. In order to alleviate this situation the current article will draw on critical realist philosophy. It will argue (1) that critical realism provides conflict studies authors with a more sophisticated and coherent understanding of causality than has previously been available to them, and (2) that this understanding paves the way for an approach to social science which – rather than consistently abstracting from context– systematically engages with it.; (AN 41619603)
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2.

Joining by Number: Military Intervention in Civil Wars by Shirkey, Zachary C.. Civil Wars, October 2016, Vol. 18 Issue: Number 4 p417-438, 22p; Abstract: AbstractUnderstanding why and when states militarily intervene in civil wars is crucial. Intervention can increase civil wars’ severity and the strategies employed in civil wars are shaped by the possibility of military intervention. This article argues that potential military interveners react to information revealed about warring parties’ intentions and relative power. Without revealed information, potential military interveners are unlikely to reconsider their initial decision to remain out of the war. Revealed information causes non-belligerent states to update their expectations about the trajectory of the civil war causing them, at times, to change their calculus about the benefits of belligerency and thus intervene. This helps explain why civil wars spread and when they do so. This explanation is tested using generalised estimating equations on a new data-set of unexpected events for the civil wars in the Correlates of War Intrastate War and PRIO Armed Conflict data-sets.; (AN 41619604)
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3.

Do Democracies Support Violent Non-governmental Organizations Less Than Autocracies Do? by Goldman, Ogen. Civil Wars, October 2016, Vol. 18 Issue: Number 4 p439-466, 28p; Abstract: AbstractThis study draws attention to the question: Do democracies fight indirectly through material support to violent non-governmental organizations (VNGOs) which wage intrastate war against other states in general and against democracies in particular, or are democracies less warlike by proxy? The main conclusions are: democracies are less warlike by proxy than non-democratic states, and the more democratic the regime the lower the probability that it will support VNGOs waging war against other states, both in general and against other democracies in particular. The results do not unequivocally support both the monadic or dyadic argument of democratic peaceful behaviour; (AN 41619605)
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4.

Child Soldiering in Colombia: Does Poverty Matter? by Vargas, Gonzalo A.; Restrepo-Jaramillo, Nataly. Civil Wars, October 2016, Vol. 18 Issue: Number 4 p467-487, 21p; Abstract: AbstractChild soldiering remains a challenge for the international community, and non-state armed groups are the most persistent offenders, but its drivers are poorly understood. Recent contributions suggest that decisions by armed groups are the key to explain child soldiering and that contextual variables are less relevant. This article exploits the availability of subnational, longitudinal data on child soldiering in Colombia, where insurgents and private militias have recruited children at least since the 1990s. The analysis shows that child recruitment is more likely in poorer municipalities, with limited access to education, and where coca crops are grown.; (AN 41619606)
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5.

Twenty Years After Dayton: Bosnia-Herzegovina (Still) Stable and Explosive by Kartsonaki, Argyro. Civil Wars, October 2016, Vol. 18 Issue: Number 4 p488-516, 29p; Abstract: AbstractThis paper examines how fragile Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) is and whether it is indeed in danger of collapsing, as significant amount of academic literature often claims. The research finds that BiH is not in an immediate danger of collapse. BiH remains peaceful, despite the numerous challenges it faces. However, it comprises an alarming amount of causes of conflict that have been mitigated because both international actors and local elites benefit from the current status quo. Thus, BiH finds itself in a peaceful stalemate, which is likely to continue until a structural change occurs that triggers the outbreak of violent conflict.; (AN 41619608)
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6.

Review Essay by Rose, William; Majkut, Andrew; Strayer, Michelle; Chen, Christopher. Civil Wars, October 2016, Vol. 18 Issue: Number 4 p517-537, 21p; (AN 41619607)
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=41619607&site=ehost-live

7.

Networks of Rebellion: Explaining Insurgent Cohesion and Collapse by Rafiq, Samah. Civil Wars, October 2016, Vol. 18 Issue: Number 4 p538-541, 4p; (AN 41619609)
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8.

State Erosion: Unlootable Resources and Unruly Elites in Central Asia by Sharshenova, Aijan. Civil Wars, October 2016, Vol. 18 Issue: Number 4 p541-542, 2p; (AN 41619610)
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5

Cold War History
Volume 17 , no. 1, January 2017

Record

Results

1.

The assassination of Eduardo Mondlane: FRELIMO, Tanzania, and the politics of exile in Dar es Salaam by Roberts, George. Cold War History, January 2017, Vol. 17 Issue: Number 1 p1-19, 19p; Abstract: AbstractThis article uses the city of Dar es Salaam as an urban lens for understanding the politics of FRELIMO in exile and the assassination of its first president, Eduardo Mondlane, in 1969. By adopting a multiarchival technique, these narratives can be broken down to a micropolitical level, shedding light on the distribution of agency in the confluence of superpower rivalry and decolonisation in the Third World. The splits within the liberation movement can be explained via the intersection of internal disagreements, Cold War dynamics, and relations with the Tanzanian state, within the context of Dar es Salaam’s cosmopolitan public sphere.; (AN 41456217)
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2.

Divide and Rule: Israel’s Tactics Regarding the Jerusalem Question and America’s Response, 1949–1950 by Heimann, Gadi. Cold War History, January 2017, Vol. 17 Issue: Number 1 p21-38, 18p; Abstract: AbstractIn 1949–1950, an interesting diplomatic affair took place for which details have not yet being disclosed. The Israelis who were unable to reach an agreement with the Jordanians over Jerusalem, advanced solutions in which the latter will pay the major price. However, the US was not interested in forcing a solution on the Jordanians nor to see them internationally isolated. Preventing such a development was far more important for them than promoting the internationalization plan. Thus US acted to sabotage Israelis maneuvers believing that putting the blame of failure on both sides suit best their interests. Therefore, the belief that the Americans took a passive and neutral stand over the Jerusalem question does not conform to reality. Instead, they were engaged vigorously, although mostly behind the scene, undermining the 1949 resolution.; (AN 41456218)
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3.

‘That mad hatters tea party on the East River’: Conservative journals of opinion and the United Nations 1964–1981 by Jurdem, Laurence R.. Cold War History, January 2017, Vol. 17 Issue: Number 1 p39-59, 21p; Abstract: AbstractDuring the 1960s and 1970s the Right viewed the United Nations as an institution that had lost its way. Writers for the journals of conservative opinion believed America’s complacent position toward the UN’s anti-western attitudes were representative of a nation that was no longer confident as a leader in the world. It was a course they were determined to change. The actions of National Review, Human Eventsand Commentarywere not singularly responsible for the success or failure of American policy at the UN, but the language they employed contributed to the tone Ronald Reagan used during his presidency.; (AN 41456219)
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4.

The Alliance for Progress and President João Goulart’s Three-Year Plan: the deterioration of U.S.-Brazilian Relations in Cold War Brazil (1962) by Loureiro, Felipe Pereira. Cold War History, January 2017, Vol. 17 Issue: Number 1 p61-79, 19p; Abstract: AbstractThis paper analyses U.S.-Brazilian relations during the elaboration of João Goulart’s Three-Year Plan in late 1962, which sought to tackle Brazil’s severe economic imbalances without compromising growth and through the implementation of distributive reforms. Although the plan followed the principles of John F. Kennedy’s Alliance for Progress, Washington did not offer adequate assistance because of Goulart’s threats to increase links with the Soviet bloc. The United States hardened its position, seeking to change the orientation of the Brazilian government. This led to the abandonment of the Three-Year Plan, and contributed to social and political destabilisation that resulted in Brazil’s March 1964 military coup.; (AN 41456220)
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5.

Contesting France: French informants and American intelligence in the dawning Cold War by Perlman, Susan McCall. Cold War History, January 2017, Vol. 17 Issue: Number 1 p81-98, 18p; Abstract: AbstractBy integrating French archives and untapped US intelligence records, this article uncovers a debate within US government circles about the accuracy of the entrenched image of France at the onset of the Cold War as decadent and teetering toward revolution. In exchanges with the White House, State Department and military, right-leaning French sources bolstered this view. French contacts in the Resistance meanwhile shaped Office of Strategic Services analysis that France was a strong, worthy ally. France became a contested idea with warring factions in both capitals seeking to influence US policy – with repercussions for Franco-American relations for decades to come.; (AN 41456223)
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6.

Kissinger, vol. 1: 1923–1968: The Idealist and Kissinger’s Shadow: The Long Reach of America's Most Controversial Statesman by Hanhimäki, Jussi M.. Cold War History, January 2017, Vol. 17 Issue: Number 1 p99-102, 4p; (AN 41456221)
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7.

Jimmy Carter in Africa: Race and the Cold War by Saunders, Chris. Cold War History, January 2017, Vol. 17 Issue: Number 1 p102-104, 3p; (AN 41456222)
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8.

The Sino-Soviet Alliance: An International History by Friedman, Jeremy. Cold War History, January 2017, Vol. 17 Issue: Number 1 p104-106, 3p; (AN 41456224)
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9.

Books Received Cold War History, January 2017, Vol. 17 Issue: Number 1 p107-109, 3p; (AN 41456225)
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6

Communist and Post-Communist Studies
Volume 50, no. 1, March 2017

Record

Results

1.

“The laughing third man in a fight”: Stalin's use of the wedge strategy by Hager, Robert P.. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, March 2017, Vol. 50 Issue: Number 1 p15-27, 13p; Abstract: Although much IR theory focuses on balancing, this paper examines a version of the wedge strategy, what Stalin allegedly called being “the laughing third man in a fight.” This is the practice of advancing one's goals by setting up other states to fight each other. The first case study is Soviet strategy in Europe from September 1939 until June 1941. The second is Soviet strategy in the Far East in 1941–45. What I am looking at here is a policy of deliberately encouraging the start of a war and/or aiding its prolongation in order to weaken both sides. The two case studies indicate that the Soviet Union used such a strategy at times in place of the usual forms of balancing, discussed in the international relations literature. Additionally, analysis of Moscow's conduct, statements by Soviet leaders, and the policies of a number of foreign communist parties indicate that, in addition to any security goals, Stalin's agenda included furthering the USSR's goal as a revolutionary state, even thought this had at times to be constrained by realpolitik.; (AN 40672426)
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2.

Ukrainian kleptocrats and America's real-life House of Cards: Corruption, lobbyism and the rule of law by Kuzio, Taras. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, March 2017, Vol. 50 Issue: Number 1 p29-40, 12p; Abstract: Washington DC is not only a center for democracy promotion programs by government-funded and private foundations and think tanks. Washington DC has also attracted hundreds of millions of dollars for lobbyists, political consultants and think tanks from authoritarian political forces and kleptocrats who have little in common with American and European values. Both Republicans and Democrats have been recipients of these illicit funds from state officials and oligarchs who are seeking to ingratiate themselves with American public opinion. Political consultants, lobbyists, lawyers and think tanks which receive funds from such sources are part of a bigger problem of reverse corruption and cynicism and the export of authoritarian practices from Ukraine and post-Soviet states to the West. This was clearly seen in the hiring of Paul Manafort, Viktor Yanukovych's long-time political consultant by US presidential candidate Donald Trump. Trump's promise to ‘drain the (Washington) swamp’ rings hollow after it was revealed he accepted funds from a Ukrainian oligarch who had earlier donated funds to the Clinton's (Reader 2016).; (AN 40979758)
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3.

Active resistance to democratic diffusion by Vanderhill, Rachel. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, March 2017, Vol. 50 Issue: Number 1 p41-51, 11p; Abstract: Recent research on the international diffusion of democracy has focused on demonstrating how diffusion can change regime outcomes. Although there is still debate within the field of democratization over how important democratic diffusion is relative to domestic factors, autocratic leaders believe that democratic diffusion can be a threat to their rule. It is clear that some countries, such as North Korea, prevent diffusion by severely restricting interactions with foreigners and forbidding access to external sources of information. The more intriguing question is how the states that have economic, diplomatic, and social linkages with democratic states prevent democratic diffusion. In other words, what methods do globally-engaged, autocratic governments use to limit exposure to and reduce receptivity to democratic diffusion?; (AN 40972177)
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4.

Self-rated health and barriers to healthcare in Ukraine: The pivotal role of gender and its intersections by Cockerham, William C.; Hamby, Bryant W.; Hankivsky, Olena; Baker, Elizabeth H.; Rouhani, Setareh. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, March 2017, Vol. 50 Issue: Number 1 p53-63, 11p; Abstract: The ongoing health crisis in the Ukraine has persisted for 48 years with a clear division of gender-based outcomes as seen in the decline of male life expectancy and stagnation of female longevity. The purpose of this paper is to investigate differences in self-rated health and system barriers to health care applicable to gender and its intersections because of the differing negative health outcomes for men and women. Intersectionality theory provides an analytic framework for interpreting our results. Utilizing a nationwide sample of the Ukrainian population (N = 1908), we found that low socioeconomic status (SES) women rate their health worse than men generally and any other socioeconomic group. Yet women also face the greatest barriers to health care until older ages when the ailments of men cause them to likewise face the obstacles. In reviewing the barrier to health care scale, one barrier—that of health care services being too expensive—dominated the responses with some 52.5 percent of the sample reporting it. Consequently, the greatest problem in Ukraine with respect to health reform reported by the population is the out-of-pocket costs for care in a system that is officially free. These costs, constituting some 40 percent of all national health expenditures, affect women and the aged the most.; (AN 40979756)
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5.

Structural change versus turnpike optimality: A Polish perspective by Gurgul, Henryk; Lach, Łukasz. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, March 2017, Vol. 50 Issue: Number 1 p65-76, 12p; Abstract: Using a modified dynamic IO model for Poland which allows taking into account actual trends observed in recently available statistical data we compare the rate of economic growth calculated for different growth paths resulting from the model. The goal of the research was to examine the distance between the actual structure of production and the structure on the turnpike and its impact on the economic growth of the economy under study. The results of the study indicate that the impact of structural change on output takes place in three general stages. The benefits of structural change do not outbalance the corresponding costs immediately, since it takes several periods until the growth rate of those paths which are closer to the von Neumann ray become larger than the corresponding growth rate of the benchmark growth path.; (AN 40972183)
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6.

Editorial Board Communist and Post-Communist Studies, March 2017, Vol. 50 Issue: Number 1 pIFC-IFC; (AN 41577379)
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7

Comparative Strategy
Volume 36, no. 1, January 2017

Record

Results

1.

Russian strategy Expansion, crisis and conflict by Payne, Keith B.; Foster, John S.. Comparative Strategy, January 2017, Vol. 36 Issue: Number 1 p1-89, 89p; Abstract: AbstractRussian foreign military actions, defense initiatives, markedly expanded conventional and nuclear arms programs, internal repression, and egregious arms control non-compliance are elements of an increasingly assertive and threatening agenda. In this text, we call out and examine the apparent grand strategy underlying Russian policies, programs and behavior.This examination demonstrates that Russian grand strategy now includes a deeply-troubling mix of ingredients, including increasing hostility toward the West, expanding conventional and nuclear weapons programs, a military doctrine that place much greater emphasis on nuclear weapons and military campaigns against neighboring states.These developments have created the potential for escalating political military crises in Europe and may be more dangerous than were Soviet Cold War policies and behavior. In particular, contemporary Russian nuclear strategy is intended to coerce the West and enforce Moscow's expansionist moves with nuclear first-use threats and planning that go well beyond Soviet Cold War behavior.; (AN 41546729)
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8

Conflict, Security & Development
Volume 17, no. 2, March 2017

Record

Results

1.

State formation as it happens: insights from a repeated cross-sectional study in Afghanistan, 2007–2015 by Böhnke, Jan R.; Koehler, Jan; Zürcher, Christoph M.. Conflict, Security and Development, March 2017, Vol. 17 Issue: Number 2 p91-116, 26p; Abstract: AbstractThis paper contributes to an empirical understanding of state formation. Based on an original household-level data set, we provide a detailed picture of the process of state formation in Afghanistan over the last decade. State formation happens when state and society engage in reciprocal relations. Central to this relationship is an exchange of services for the acceptance of authority and increased legitimacy. Our data allows us to assess state-society relations across different dimensions. We focus on the provision of services, on the responsiveness of the state, on conflict regulation and on taxation. As a result we find more evidence of state formation than expected, but also see this as a contested process that unfolds unevenly and with different speed across different sectors.; (AN 41719920)
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2.

The insecurities of weaponised education: a critical discourse analysis of the securitised education discourse in North-West Pakistan by Ford, Kieran. Conflict, Security and Development, March 2017, Vol. 17 Issue: Number 2 p117-139, 23p; Abstract: AbstractThis article presents a critical discourse analysis of the discourse surrounding education, international development and security in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, North-West Pakistan. The article notes the dissonance between a discourse emphasising global security and the experienced insecurity faced by schools and students in North-West Pakistan, under attack from the Pakistani Taliban (the most notable attack being the shooting of Malala Yousafzai in 2012). This analysis examines the impact of securitisation on the discursive production of the political realm, exploring whether securitisation engenders security or insecurity. Three key findings emerge. First, the purpose of securitised education becomes fixed on ‘mindset transformation’ from an extremist mindset to an educated mindset. Second, students are transformed into soldiers fighting against extremism as education becomes weaponised. Third, the discourse blurs the distinction between the uneducated and extremist, and the figure of the ‘threatening, uneducated Other’ emerges. The discursive production of such oppositional subjectivities throws into question whether the international community’s intervention in education in North-West Pakistan, in order to improve security and fight extremism, is not in fact producing greater insecurity.; (AN 41719917)
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3.

The revitalisation of Buddhist peace activism in post-war Cambodia by Soeung, Bunly; Lee, SungYong. Conflict, Security and Development, March 2017, Vol. 17 Issue: Number 2 p141-161, 21p; Abstract: AbstractThis article examines the Buddhist peace movements in Cambodia, which are being revitalised after a long silence since the late 1990s. Specifically, it explains how Cambodian Buddhist monks develop and maintain their normative legitimacy and connection with civilian followers by focusing on their approaches to four types of resources: religious authority, cultural knowledge, social networks, and new communication technology. Through the analysis, the study aims to offer empirical examples of religious leaders’ strategies for promoting peace activism and to demonstrate an ideal type of locally owned peace-building promoted in post-conflict contexts, both of which are rarely available in the existing literature.; (AN 41719918)
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4.

Internal borderlands: architectures of force and state expansion in India’s central ‘frontier’ by Spacek, Michael. Conflict, Security and Development, March 2017, Vol. 17 Issue: Number 2 p163-182, 20p; Abstract: AbstractIndia’s Maoist insurgency, a conflict in the geographic heartland of the country, is often portrayed as symptomatic of the underdevelopment and weak governance of the region. Rhetorically, the state has pursued a counter-insurgency strategy premised on a tandem of ‘security’ and development, while emphasising the conflict zone’s rootedness in the nation. This discourse ignores that historically the state has treated the region as a hostile ‘borderland’. This paper argues that the Indian state’s counter-insurgency is structured around a set of strategies of absorption. Drawing on James C. Scott’s examination of Zomia, as well as Henri Lefebvre’s theories of the state and space, this paper examines processes of militarised state expansion. Focusing on the construction of roads, government-controlled resettlement camps, forward operating bases and militarised schools, this paper conceptualises these particular state spaces as ‘architectures of force’: material manifestations of a larger project of highly militarised and acutely violent state-building.; (AN 41719919)
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9

Contemporary Security Policy
Volume 38, no. 1, January 2017

Record

Results

1.

Changes to the editorial board by Dijkstra, Hylke. Contemporary Security Policy, January 2017, Vol. 38 Issue: Number 1 p1-1, 1p; (AN 41613874)
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2.

The 2017 Bernard Brodie Prize Contemporary Security Policy, January 2017, Vol. 38 Issue: Number 1 p2-3, 2p; (AN 41613875)
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3.

Nuclear weapons, the United States and alliances in Europe and Asia: Toward an institutional perspective by Frühling, Stephan; O’Neil, Andrew. Contemporary Security Policy, January 2017, Vol. 38 Issue: Number 1 p4-25, 22p; Abstract: ABSTRACTAmerica’s alliances in Europe and East Asia all involve some institutional cooperation on U.S. nuclear weapons policy, planning or employment—from consultative fora in Asia to joint policy and sharing of nuclear warheads in NATO. Such cooperation is often analyzed through the prism of “extended nuclear deterrence,” which focuses on the extension of U.S. security guarantees and their effect on potential adversaries. This article argues that this underplays the importance of institutional factors: Allies have historically addressed a range of objectives through such cooperation, which has helped to catalyze agreements about broader alliance strategy. The varied form such cooperation takes in different alliances also flows from the respective bargaining power of allies and the relative importance of consensus, rather than perceived threats. The article concludes that nuclear weapons cooperation will remain crucial in successful U.S. alliance management, as allies negotiate their relationship with each other in the face of geostrategic change.; (AN 41613879)
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4.

Security assurances and proliferation risks in the Trump administration by Knopf, Jeffrey W.. Contemporary Security Policy, January 2017, Vol. 38 Issue: Number 1 p26-34, 9p; Abstract: ABSTRACTComments that Donald Trump made while campaigning to be U.S. president have raised concerns that his administration will pull back from U.S. alliance commitments and encourage countries such as Japan and South Korea to acquire nuclear arms. The new article by Frühling and O’Neil outlines an institutional framework that can be helpful in assessing the risks that Trump administration policies will lead to nuclear proliferation. An institutional perspective shows that important elements of U.S. security assurances will continue to function, and this reduces the chances that President Trump’s actions or statements will trigger proliferation by U.S. allies. The greatest risk to global non-proliferation efforts posed by a Trump administration in fact lies elsewhere, in the possibility that President Trump will seek to abrogate the Iran nuclear deal.; (AN 41613876)
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5.

Let’s make a (nuclear) deal: Bargaining, credibility, and the third offset strategy by Jackson, Van. Contemporary Security Policy, January 2017, Vol. 38 Issue: Number 1 p35-40, 6p; Abstract: ABSTRACTAn institutional perspective on nuclear deterrence cooperation within alliances has the potential to fundamentally reorient how we think about analyzing nuclear and deterrence decision-making between nuclear patrons and non-nuclear clients. It comes at a time when the presidency of Donald Trump is sure to test many of the core claims and assumptions in security studies, especially relating to bargaining and credibility within alliances. This article surveys questions that will be core to the research agenda involving alliance institutions and nuclear weapons during the Trump presidency and beyond.; (AN 41613878)
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6.

Goodbye to all that? Institutionalist theory, U.S. alliances, and Donald Trump by Lanoszka, Alexander. Contemporary Security Policy, January 2017, Vol. 38 Issue: Number 1 p41-46, 6p; Abstract: ABSTRACTIn an important and stimulating article, Stephan Frühling and Andrew O’Neil argue in favor of applying institutionalist theory to understand the alliance politics of U.S. nuclear weapons strategy. But what promise does institutionalist theory really hold in thinking about highly unequal alliances nested in their particular threat environments? I argue that much work remains to be done to determine how much better institutionalist variables explain intra-alliance dynamics over alternative arguments that emphasize power and interests. Balances of power and the nature of threat environments may already account for key aspects of extended deterrent relationships supported by the United States in Europe and Asia. Ironically, the implication of this more traditional interpretation of alliances is that more continuity than change will characterize how Donald Trump will manage U.S. security relationships as President.; (AN 41613877)
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7.

Nuclear weapons and alliance institutions in the era of President Trump by Frühling, Stephan; O’Neil, Andrew. Contemporary Security Policy, January 2017, Vol. 38 Issue: Number 1 p47-53, 7p; Abstract: ABSTRACTThe swearing in of Donald Trump as the 45th President of the United States presages, at the very least, a period of flux in American strategy with respect to the relationship between nuclear weapons and alliances. In this response to three thoughtful rejoinders to our article, “Nuclear weapons, the United States and alliances in Europe and Asia: Toward an institutional perspective,” we clarify key aspects of our argument and discuss why alliance institutions are likely to be relatively robust in the face of change, how they can influence national decision-making, and argue that they may exert a moderating influence over the new administration.; (AN 41613883)
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8.

The nuclear education of Donald J. Trump by Michaels, Jeffrey; Williams, Heather. Contemporary Security Policy, January 2017, Vol. 38 Issue: Number 1 p54-77, 24p; Abstract: ABSTRACTDuring the 2016 American presidential campaign, Democrats and Republicans alike repeatedly raised concerns at the prospect of Donald Trump being in charge of America’s nuclear arsenal based on his seemingly unstable personality. Unfortunately, this emphasis on Trump’s character distracted attention from any in-depth investigation into his long-standing interest in nuclear issues. This article seeks to remedy this shortcoming by highlighting the nuclear legacy Trump will inherit from Obama, surveying his statements on nuclear issues over more than three decades, and providing an analysis of constraining factors on his administration’s nuclear agenda, particularly domestic institutions. It finds that most of Trump’s views on nuclear issues are relatively consistent with past Republican presidents. Where he is unique, however, is in his use of social media, which has potential implications on nuclear signaling.; (AN 41613880)
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9.

Reconsidering minimum deterrence in South Asia: Indian responses to Pakistan’s tactical nuclear weapons by O’Donnell, Frank. Contemporary Security Policy, January 2017, Vol. 38 Issue: Number 1 p78-101, 24p; Abstract: ABSTRACTIndia’s nuclear doctrine and posture has traditionally been shaped by minimum deterrence logic. This logic includes assumptions that possession of only a small retaliatory nuclear force generates sufficient deterrent effect against adversaries, and accordingly that development of limited nuclear warfighting concepts and platforms are unnecessary for national security. The recent emergence of Pakistan’s Nasr tactical nuclear missile platform has generated pressures on Indian minimum deterrence. This article analyzes Indian official and strategic elite responses to the Nasr challenge, including policy recommendations and attendant implications. It argues that India should continue to adhere to minimum deterrence, which serves as the most appropriate concept for Indian nuclear policy and best supports broader foreign and security policy objectives. However, the form through which Indian minimum deterrence is delivered must be rethought in light of this new stage of regional nuclear competition.; (AN 41613882)
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10.

New directions for African security by Haastrup, Toni; Dijkstra, Hylke. Contemporary Security Policy, January 2017, Vol. 38 Issue: Number 1 p102-108, 7p; Abstract: ABSTRACTAfrican security, particularly conflict-related political violence, is a key concern in international relations. This forum seeks to advance existing research agendas by addressing four key themes: domestic politics and peacekeeping; security sector reform programs; peace enforcement; and the protection of civilians. Each of the articles in this forum makes a case for analyzing African agency when it comes to African security. As a way of introduction, this short article sets out the main debates and concludes by providing further directions for future research.; (AN 41613881)
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11.

Rentier peacekeeping in neo-patrimonial systems: The examples of Burundi and Kenya by Brosig, Malte. Contemporary Security Policy, January 2017, Vol. 38 Issue: Number 1 p109-128, 20p; Abstract: ABSTRACTInternational peacekeeping in Africa has developed dynamically in the last decade. The majority of global missions are deployed to the continent, the largest regional contingent of troops comes from Africa, and the African Peace and Security Architecture has made significant progress. Peacekeeping is Africanized today more than at any time before. However, mainstream research has insufficiently paid attention to African agency in this context. This article sheds light on the often neglected influence of African politics on international peacekeeping missions. The focus is set on the consequences of neo-patrimonial political systems, which can use international peacekeeping missions as an opportunity to generate rents. It will be shown that such a rent-seeking approach is highly problematic for the troop-contributing as well as mission-hosting countries. Instead of curbing conflict, rentier peacekeeping is prolonging and exporting it. The empirical examples used are the Burundian and Kenyan involvement in peacekeeping in Somalia.; (AN 41613884)
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12.

Security sector reform in Africa: Donor approaches versus local needs by Ansorg, Nadine. Contemporary Security Policy, January 2017, Vol. 38 Issue: Number 1 p129-144, 16p; Abstract: ABSTRACTMany African states have security sector reform (SSR) programs. These are often internationally funded. But how do such programs account for previously existing security institutions and the security needs of local communities? This article examines SSR all over Africa to assess local ownership and path dependency from a New Institutionalist perspective. It finds that SSR, particularly in post-conflict countries, tends to be driven by ideas and perceptions of international donors promoting generalized blueprints. Often, such programs only account in a very limited way for path-dependent aspects of security institutions or the local context. Hence, the reforms often lack local participation and are thus not accepted by the local community eventually.; (AN 41613885)
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13.

Peace enforcement in Africa: Doctrinal distinctions between the African Union and United Nations by de Coning, Cedric. Contemporary Security Policy, January 2017, Vol. 38 Issue: Number 1 p145-160, 16p; Abstract: ABSTRACTWhen the United Nations (UN) Security Council needs to authorize a peace enforcement operation in Africa, its partner of choice is the African Union (AU). Africa has developed significant peace operations capacity over the past decade. In addition to deploying eight AU operations, Africa now contributes 50% of all UN peacekeepers. African stability operations, like its mission in Somalia, are often described as peace enforcement operations. In this article, I question whether it is accurate to categorize African stability operations as peace enforcement? I answer the question by considering what the criteria are that are used to differentiate between peace enforcement and peacekeeping operations in the UN context. I then use the peace enforcement criteria to assess whether AU stabilization operations would qualify as peace enforcement operations. In conclusion, I consider the implications of the findings for the strategic partnership between the AU and the UN.; (AN 41613886)
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14.

Civilian protection in Africa: How the protection of civilians is being militarized by African policymakers and diplomats by Gelot, Linnéa. Contemporary Security Policy, January 2017, Vol. 38 Issue: Number 1 p161-173, 13p; Abstract: ABSTRACTThis article explores how the protection of civilians is being militarized by African policymakers and diplomats. I draw on practice approaches to analyze what social groups are doing when they claim to “protect civilians.” I show how innovative protection mechanisms can be seen as a function of officials and diplomats coping with the changing circumstances of increasingly militarized politics in Africa. Specifically, accountability mechanisms for unintended and intended civilian harm by African security operations have originated in connection with this development. I argue that these are results of anchoring practices, which means that everyday informal interactions in one context become linked to another context. I argue that these emerging accountability mechanisms represent a new combination of practices, with the potential of changing the routine activities and mutual learning between policymakers and diplomats.; (AN 41613887)
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10

Cooperation and Conflict
Volume 51, no. 4, December 2016

Record

Results

1.

Eternal potential? Temporality, complexity and the incoherent power of the European Union by Holden, Patrick. Cooperation and Conflict, December 2016, Vol. 51 Issue: Number 4 p407-427, 21p; Abstract: Temporality is a relatively under-explored factor in international relations. The concept of timescape refers to the temporal timeframe of institutional processes and/or the timeframes of causation at different levels. Said concept has powerful explanatory potential in the case of complex, fragmented entities such as the European Union (EU). Critical realism offers a historicist meta-theoretical framework for delineating and analysing timescapes of different forms. Theories of critical political economy and historical sociology can be used to critique the EU’s own liberal teleological timescapes. The Union’s leadership postulates a central future role for it, based on its long-term structural relationships, and its Mediterranean policy is a prime example of this structural foreign policy. However, its component structures are profoundly dissonant and unlikely to coalesce into a meaningful role. The EU’s engagement in the Mediterranean illustrates how its long-term approach is over-ridden by the ‘real-time’ agency of other actors, and by deeper socio-economic cycles which it cannot control. A focus on temporality thus helps to interpret and explain the fragmented power of the EU; as well as our complex international system more generally.; (AN 40446450)
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2.

Disentangling media effects: The impact of short-term and long-term news coverage on Belgian emergency assistance by Joly, Jeroen. Cooperation and Conflict, December 2016, Vol. 51 Issue: Number 4 p428-446, 19p; Abstract: Whether and how media are able to influence policy and the political decision-making process is still the topic of much debate. However, if news media are indeed able to influence policy, they are commonly believed to do so indirectly through their agenda-setting function – by getting issues onto the political agenda after sudden peaks of attention. Yet, despite the assertion of agenda-setting theory that policy changes occur mainly through steady advocacy of policy alternatives, little attention has been paid to the long-term effects of media exposure. The analysis of emergency assistance in Belgium from 2000–2008 shows that short-term and long-term media attention to specific countries affect decision-making in quite different ways. This study reveals different ways in which media attention can impact policymaking, as short-term attention mainly determines which countries receive assistance, while long-term attention affects the amount of assistance granted.; (AN 40446458)
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3.

Learning to assert themselves: Small states in asymmetrical dyads – two Scandinavian dogs barking at the Russian bear by Mellander, Maria; Mouritzen, Hans. Cooperation and Conflict, December 2016, Vol. 51 Issue: Number 4 p447-466, 20p; Abstract: By measuring foreign policy assertion, we document that Danish and Swedish Russia policies have fluctuated widely in the 21st century, as well as in relation to each other. Specifically, big assertion leaps took place in 2002 (Denmark) and 2008 (Sweden). Having conceptualised and operationalised small state assertion, we proceed to the explanation of these leaps. The same factor turns out to be the efficient explanation in both cases: an individual policy-maker’s so-called ‘lesson of the past’ – what he believes ‘history teaches us’. It is shown how existing theory of lessons of the past can contribute to the understanding of small state assertion in asymmetrical dyads, but only if the proper permissive circumstances are identified. First and foremost these amount to the presence of a reasonable foreign policy action space.; (AN 40446460)
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4.

The bridge on the Neretva: Stari Most as a stage of memory in post-conflict Mostar, Bosnia–Herzegovina by Forde, Susan. Cooperation and Conflict, December 2016, Vol. 51 Issue: Number 4 p467-483, 17p; Abstract: This article conceptualises the institutional narrative of the reconstruction of Stari Most (Old Bridge), regarded as an international symbol of reconciliation in Mostar, Bosnia–Herzegovina, as a staged reconciliation of the city. Constructed during Ottoman occupation Stari Most became a signifier of Mostar and was central to the growth of the city. Stari Most was destroyed in 1993 during the Bosnian war; restoration began five years following, and the bridge alongside Stari Grad (Old Town) was reopened as a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) heritage site in 2004. UNESCO began operating in 1945 on the grounds that ‘peace must be established on the basis of humanity’s moral and intellectual solidarity’, based on a collaborative effort to celebrate diversity and innovation. In this article I conceptualise Stari Most as a stage of memory through identifying, firstly, the institutional staging of the reconstruction as a structure which ‘bridges’ divides, and secondly, the institutional narrative of the bridge as a symbolically reconciling structure, in a city which remains divided.; (AN 40446454)
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5.

When risky decisions are not surprising: An application of prospect theory to the Israeli war decision in 2006 by Niv-Solomon, Anat. Cooperation and Conflict, December 2016, Vol. 51 Issue: Number 4 p484-503, 20p; Abstract: On 12 July 2006, Hezbollah operatives crossed into Israel and attacked a military patrol, killing three soldiers and kidnapping two more. In retaliation to this incident Israel launched a military operation that resulted in 34 days of fighting between Hezbollah and Israel. The Israeli retaliation has been deemed to be severe and surprising. Furthermore, a public investigation commission established by the Israeli government implicated key decision-makers, and especially Prime Minister Olmert, as guilty of hasty and irresponsible decision-making. This article views this case through the lens of prospect theory, showing how the decision was made at the framing stage, and suggesting that this decision was not hasty but, rather, was consistent with the logic of loss-aversion.; (AN 40446449)
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6.

Normative power and the logic of arguing: Rationalization of weakness or relinquishment of strength? by Janusch, Holger. Cooperation and Conflict, December 2016, Vol. 51 Issue: Number 4 p504-521, 18p; Abstract: The concept of Europe as a normative power can be understood as a theoretical attempt to define a new type of protagonist in world politics, distinct from older concepts such as empire, hegemonic power, or great power. Because many scholars have used universal norms as a criterion for ‘normative power Europe’, the concept is often criticized as hidden Eurocentrism, soft imperialism, or hegemony. In this article, a normative power is defined not by the universality of the norms it seeks to diffuse, but by the underlying logic according to which it acts. A normative power takes communicative actions and acts in accordance with the logic of arguing, not consequentialism. This definition of normative power escapes the trap of a hidden Eurocentric imperialism by abstracting the theoretical concept from the specific case of Europe and detaching it from the criterion of universal norms.; (AN 40446456)
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7.

The sum of its parts? Sources of local legitimacy by Gippert, Birte J. Cooperation and Conflict, December 2016, Vol. 51 Issue: Number 4 p522-538, 17p; Abstract: The article analyses the sources of local actors’ legitimacy perceptions towards international peacebuilding operations. Local legitimacy perceptions are increasingly recognised as shaping local behaviour towards international peacebuilding, which influences the effective functioning of the operation. Legitimacy debates in peacebuilding are either absent or imported from the literature on domestic legitimacy, without respect to the specific temporal and spatial situation of international operations. The article first explores which legitimacy sources influence local legitimacy perceptions of international peacebuilding operations. It finds that two sources are relevant: output and procedure. Second, it investigates how exactly legitimacy arises from them. In doing so, it demonstrates that output and procedure are umbrella terms comprising several sub-elements which influence legitimacy in different, sometimes contradictory, ways. Finally, the article empirically explores which of the sources are important to local actors’ legitimacy perceptions using field data from the EU peacebuilding operations EULEX in Kosovo and EUPM Bosnia-Herzegovina.; (AN 40446451)
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8.

Decoupling local ownership? The lost opportunities for grassroots women’s involvement in Liberian peacebuilding by Gizelis, Theodora-Ismene; Joseph, Jonathan. Cooperation and Conflict, December 2016, Vol. 51 Issue: Number 4 p539-556, 18p; Abstract: Civil society organizations and grassroots groups are often unable to play an active role in post-conflict reconstruction and peacebuilding. A possible explanation for the observed challenges in peacebuilding is the gap or decoupling between international expectations and norms from practical action, local norms and capacities. External actors are often overly instrumental and operate according to a general template that fails to start from what the local capacities might actually be. This often leads to the decoupling of general values from practical action, which helps account for the observed barriers of engaging local civil and community organizations in reconstruction. We examine the different types of decoupling and the challenges these present. We evaluate our general theoretical argument using evidence based on the experiences of Liberian women’s civil society organizations. Given the compliance of the Liberian government with international norms, we should expect external actors to have an easier task in incorporating civil society and women’s organizations in the post-conflict reconstruction process; yet, the record appears to be the opposite. While we present the ‘tragic’ aspect of this relationship between international norms and local practice, we also suggest opportunities for ‘hybrid’ alternatives.; (AN 40446453)
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9.

Book review: The Search for Lasting Peace: Critical Perspectives on Gender-Responsive Human Security by Jansson, Maria. Cooperation and Conflict, December 2016, Vol. 51 Issue: Number 4 p557-558, 2p; (AN 40446457)
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10.

Book review: NATO’s Post-Cold War Politics – the Changing Provision of Security by Fägersten, Bjorn. Cooperation and Conflict, December 2016, Vol. 51 Issue: Number 4 p558-560, 3p; (AN 40446452)
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11.

Book review: Civil Resistance and Conflict Transformation: Transitions from armed to nonviolent struggle by Svensson, Isak. Cooperation and Conflict, December 2016, Vol. 51 Issue: Number 4 p560-562, 3p; (AN 40446455)
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12.

Erratum Cooperation and Conflict, December 2016, Vol. 51 Issue: Number 4 p563-563, 1p; Abstract: Gifkins J (2016) R2P in the UN Security Council: Darfur, Libya and beyond. Cooperation and Conflict51(2): 148–165 (Original DOI: 10.1177/0010836715613365).; (AN 40446459)
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11

Current History
Volume 116, no. 788, March 2017

Record

Results

1.

The European Union in an Illiberal World by Smith, Karen. Current History, March 2017, Vol. 116 Issue: Number 788 p083-87, 5p; Abstract: "[A] more mercurial United States, less consistent in its support for European integration, could force the EU to rely more on itself."; (AN 41410960)
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2.

Labor's Travails in Postcommunist Eastern Europe by Sil, Rudra. Current History, March 2017, Vol. 116 Issue: Number 788 p088-94, 7p; Abstract: "After the fall of communism, the restructuring of labor became an integral part of the larger project of building democracy and markets." Sixth in a series on labor relations around the world.; (AN 41410961)
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3.

Angela Merkel's Leadership in the Refugee Crisis by Mushaben, Joyce. Current History, March 2017, Vol. 116 Issue: Number 788 p095-100, 6p; Abstract: "What Merkel's critics underestimate is the extent to which her proactive policies of the past decade encouraging integration and 'intercultural opening' have produced an even bigger paradigm shift..."; (AN 41410962)
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4.

The French State of Emergency by Fredette, Jennifer. Current History, March 2017, Vol. 116 Issue: Number 788 p101-106, 6p; Abstract: "Underlying the debate on the state of emergency and terrorism are deep tensions over the place of religion in French public life. Or more specifically, the place of Islam."; (AN 41410963)
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5.

What Brexit Means for Britain by Goodwin, Matthew. Current History, March 2017, Vol. 116 Issue: Number 788 p107-111, 5p; Abstract: "[T]he drift toward Brexit reflected a slow but persistent shift in the overall structure and attitudes of the country's electorate."; (AN 41410964)
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6.

Perspective: Shape-Shifting Illiberalism in East-Central Europe by Case, Holly. Current History, March 2017, Vol. 116 Issue: Number 788 p112-115, 4p; Abstract: In Hungary and Poland, populist leaders with authoritarian tendencies have drawn on the cynical power-holding playbooks of the old communist regimes whose traces they vowed to erase.; (AN 41410965)
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7.

Books: Where Did the Euro Go Wrong? by Eichengreen, Barry. Current History, March 2017, Vol. 116 Issue: Number 788 p116-119, 4p; Abstract: The euro crisis may have been an inevitable result of the ideologically driven arguments for adopting the common currency�or of incompatible national economic philosophies.; (AN 41410966)
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8.

Month in Review: January 2017 by History, the editors of Current. Current History, March 2017, Vol. 116 Issue: Number 788 p120-120, 1p; Abstract: An international chronology of events in January, country by country, day by day.; (AN 41410967)
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9.

Map of Europe by History, the editors of Current. Current History, March 2017, Vol. 116 Issue: Number 788 pmap-map; Abstract: Map; (AN 41410968)
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12

Defence and Peace Economics
Volume 28, no. 2, March 2017

Record

Results

1.

The timing of contests by Grandjean, Gilles; Sekeris, Petros G.. Defence and Peace Economics, March 2017, Vol. 28 Issue: Number 2 p137-149, 13p; Abstract: We develop a simple model to analyze the timing of contests. When the odds of winning a contest are exogenously given – we show that if either the players discount the future or if the total cost of contest is smaller in the future – there exist subgame perfect equilibria where both players settle, anticipating a contest in the future. With endogenous efforts, the aggregate efforts expanded in a contest are smaller if the contest occurs in the future when the relative effort productivities remain constant or diverge over time, thus creating scope for delay in contests. When the effort productivities converge over time, the total efforts may be greater under a future contest. As a consequence, players either settle over the two periods, or else they initiate a contest immediately.; (AN 41497162)
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2.

Terrorist choice: a stochastic dominance and prospect theory analysis by Phillips, Peter J.; Pohl, Gabriela. Defence and Peace Economics, March 2017, Vol. 28 Issue: Number 2 p150-164, 15p; Abstract: The paper explores terrorist choice by applying two well-known theoretical frameworks: stochastic dominance and prospect theory (PT). We analyse each pair of attack methods that can be formed from the RAND-MIPT database and the Global Terrorism Database. Instances of stochastic dominance are identified. PT orderings are computed. Attention is accorded to the identification of ‘trigger points’ and the circumstances that may lead to an increased likelihood that a terrorist will select an attack method associated with a higher expected number of fatalities, i.e. a potentially more damaging attack method.; (AN 41497165)
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3.

Institutions, information, and commitment: the role of democracy in conflict by Bang, James T.; Mitra, Aniruddha. Defence and Peace Economics, March 2017, Vol. 28 Issue: Number 2 p165-187, 23p; Abstract: This paper explores the hypothesis that both the preexistingquality of democracy in a polity at the onset of conflict and the quality of democracy expected to emerge in the aftermathinfluence the likelihood of civil war. An empirical investigation of the hypothesis presents a challenge due to concerns of endogeneity and selection: the post-conflict level of democracy is endogenous to the pre-conflict level. Further, for a given time period, either a number of countries have not experienced civil war; or if they did, did not resolve the conflict. We overcome this selection bias by implementing a three-step extension to the Heckman procedure using an unbalanced cross-country panel of 77 countries over the period 1971–2005. Consistent with our hypothesis, we find that a standard deviation improvement in the existing level of democracy reduces the probability of civil war by approximately 9 percentage points and a corresponding improvement in expected post-conflict democratization increases the probability of conflict by approximately 48 percentage points.; (AN 41497163)
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4.

Does civil war hamper financial development? by Hasan, M. Rashel; Murshed, Syed Mansoob. Defence and Peace Economics, March 2017, Vol. 28 Issue: Number 2 p188-207, 20p; Abstract: We examine how armed conflict effects financial development in a cross-country setting using dynamic panel data analysis in a panel of 66 developing countries for the period 1985–2010. Financial development is measured by M2 as a share of GDP, and credit allocated to private sector by banks as a share of GDP. Our findings suggest that armed conflict has a significant adverse effect on financial development. Simultaneously, the quality of governance is always highly significant and conducive to the financial development. The quality of governance is more salient in determining financial development compared to low- and medium-intensity armed conflict; however, the quality of governance cannot entirely offset the adverse impact of high-intensity armed conflict on financial development.; (AN 41497164)
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5.

The impact of political instability on the economic growth of ECOWAS member countries by Okafor, Godwin. Defence and Peace Economics, March 2017, Vol. 28 Issue: Number 2 p208-229, 22p; Abstract: This study contributes to the literature on political instability and economic growth by specifically investigating the impact of political instability on the economic growth of member countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). West Africa is regarded as the riskiest sub-region within the African continent. To achieve this objective, this study employed panel data techniques (fixed effects and generalised method of moments) on a sample of 15 ECOWAS member countries for the period 2005–2012. The findings from the analyses showed that terrorism, poor governance, social unrest, youth unemployment, death rate and natural resource rent have negative relationships with economic growth. The findings and policy implications deduced from this study could not have been any timelier considering the recent escalation of instability in West African countries and their fragile growth prospects.; (AN 41497167)
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6.

The human consequences of foreign military intervention by Kisangani, Emizet F.; Pickering, Jeffrey. Defence and Peace Economics, March 2017, Vol. 28 Issue: Number 2 p230-249, 20p; Abstract: The empirical international conflict literature has given much recent attention to interstate armed force’s impact on human well-being. While empirical research has advanced our understanding of the phenomenon considerably, we argue that one conclusion that many studies have reached is preliminary. Some recent research contends that only full-scale war, and not force short of war, has a discernable impact on human welfare or physical quality of life (PQOL). We develop theory on one type of force short of war, large-scale foreign military intervention (FMI), and its potential effects on PQOL. Using interrupted time series and panel corrected standard error methodologies, we find that from 1960 to 2005 large-scale FMI had a statistically and substantively significant impact on the PQOL of populations in 106 developing countries. The specific effect that this type of armed force has depended in large part on the regime type of the target country.; (AN 41497166)
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7.

The economic impact of peacekeeping. Evidence from South Sudan by Caruso, Raul; Khadka, Prabin; Petrarca, Ilaria; Ricciuti, Roberto. Defence and Peace Economics, March 2017, Vol. 28 Issue: Number 2 p250-270, 21p; Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of the deployment of United Nations Blue Helmets on economic activity in South Sudan with a special focus on agricultural production. Since UN troops are predicted to improve security, in particular, we expect a positive relationship between deployment of UN blue Helmets and cereal production. We test our hypothesis using an original data-set including all the 78 South Sudanese counties over the period 2009–2011. We control for the non-random assignment of UN troops through an Instrumental Variables approach. Our empirical results show that a 10% increase in the size of the troop allows the production of additional 600 tonnes.; (AN 41497168)
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8.

Corrigendum Defence and Peace Economics, January 2017, Vol. 28 Issue: Number 1 px-x, 1p; (AN 41152333)
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13

Defence Studies
Volume 16, no. 4, October 2016

Record

Results

1.

Dirty war: chemical weapon use and domestic repression by Brathwaite, Robert. Defence Studies, October 2016, Vol. 16 Issue: Number 4 p327-345, 19p; Abstract: AbstractThe utilization of chemical weapons to quash domestic rebellion is a drastic action for a regime facing domestic challengers to take, especially given the reputation costs and risk of international intervention. However, recent developments have illustrated that some regimes have contemplated and implemented extraordinary measures (including the use of chemical munitions) to quash rebellion. This study addresses the question of why some states utilize chemical weapons against domestic challengers while others refrain from this level of state repression. I argue that the utilization of chemical weapons has both domestic and international elements. Specifically, that ethnic cleavages that lead to secessionist challenges and factors associated with inter-state rivalry impact the likelihood that a state utilizes the employment of chemical munitions. I test my argument and other explanations regarding repression with a casestudy approach utilizing captured Iraqi Government documents comparing Iraq’s Al-Anfal campaigns with developments during the recent Syrian Civil War.; (AN 40234794)
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2.

Swedish–Finnish naval cooperation in the Baltic Sea: motives, prospects and challenges by Lundqvist, Stefan; Widen, J. J.. Defence Studies, October 2016, Vol. 16 Issue: Number 4 p346-373, 28p; Abstract: AbstractRecently, Finland and Sweden decided to substantially deepen their defence cooperation and this project involves creating a bilateral standing Naval Task Group (SFNTG). The present article aims at examining the deepening naval cooperation between Finland and Sweden from a regional integration perspective, focusing on its motives, current challenges and future prospects. Driven by perceptions of common challenges and desires for cost-effectiveness, and strengthened by recent successes on sea surveillance and a combined Amphibious Task Unit, the bilateral project has considerable potential to achieve success. To fulfil its objectives, substantial legal changes in both countries are required to allow the use of force on each other’s territorial waters. To cater for the requirement of not conflicting with EU, NORDEFCO or NATO cooperations, the bilateral Task Group must operate according to NATO standards and by using English as the language in command and control. The costs of adjusting the naval units to NATO’s technical requirements are far from negligible and this issue still remains to be solved. If Finland and Sweden manage to incorporate new policies, common structures and common organisational norms among their navies, an even deeper integration, as in Belgium and the Netherlands, are conceivable.; (AN 40234793)
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3.

The case of Donald Rumsfeld: leadership traps in national security by Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby. Defence Studies, October 2016, Vol. 16 Issue: Number 4 p374-389, 16p; Abstract: AbstractTaking its point of departure in Donald Rumsfeld’s second term as US Secretary of Defense (2001–2006), this article analyses the crisis of strategic leadership in Western national security. Three “traps” are identified that explain why Donald Rumsfeld ultimately was a failure as defence secretary and demonstrate the perils of national security governance. These traps are termed the inquisitor trap, the strong leader trap and the delegation trap. It is argued that our understanding of strategic leadership in national security, particularly in defence, can benefit from insights gained from the study of strategic leadership in business. As such, this article engages the recent trend of merging insights from business and military strategy.; (AN 40234795)
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4.

Ordering and controlling the dimensions of strategy by Lonsdale, David J.. Defence Studies, October 2016, Vol. 16 Issue: Number 4 p390-407, 18p; Abstract: AbstractColin Gray’s dimensions of strategy, built upon the earlier work of Clausewitz and Howard, has theoretical, practical, and pedagogic value for the Strategic Studies community. This paper further develops the theory, arguing that the dimensions can be controlled or managed to improve strategic performance. The dimensions are divided into two categories: “internal” and “external” to the process of strategy. The paper describes the dynamic process by which the internal dimensions, which can be controlled, are used to exert influence over the external dimensions that are beyond the control of the strategist. It is argued that six dimensions hold the key to strategic success: politics and the five dimensions concerned with warfighting. This conclusion validates the Clausewitzian paradigm with its emphasis on policy and battle.; (AN 40234796)
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5.

Militarism in post-war Cyprus: the development of the ideology of defence by Efthymiou, Stratis Andreas. Defence Studies, October 2016, Vol. 16 Issue: Number 4 p408-426, 19p; Abstract: AbstractThis article provides a theorisation of militarism in post-war Cyprus. Based on qualitative empirical research conducted in Cyprus in 2011, the article explores the manifestation and steadfastness of Greek-Cypriot militarism, and the development of this militarism, which appeared after the partition of the island in 1974. In particular, it proposes the ideology of defence as a way to understand post-war Greek-Cypriot militarism. It shows the embedded nature of defence in the idea of the national struggle. It aims at mapping the character of this militarism in order to provide the grounds for future discussion. Only by understanding the interconnecting discourses that made Greek-Cypriot militarism possible in post-war Cyprus, can we understand its past, present, and future.; (AN 40234798)
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6.

Brothers in arms, yet again? Twenty-first century Sino-Russian strategic collaboration in the realm of defence and security by Watts, John; Ledberg, Sofia; Engelbrekt, Kjell. Defence Studies, October 2016, Vol. 16 Issue: Number 4 p427-449, 23p; Abstract: Abstract2014–2015 were years of turmoil for strategic relations, with Sino-Russian relations emerging as a particularly interesting set of ties to observe. This article asks whether recurrent Sino-Russian exhortations of friendship are mirrored by their strategic alignment in the defence and security realm, half a century after the end of the Sino-Soviet pact during the communist era. We examine the arms trade between the two countries and with regional partners, but also the recent pattern of bilateral and multilateral military exercises, as a combined test of the security and defence relationship. We are able to show that the image of friendship that both Moscow and Beijing like to promote, while apparent at the UN Security Council and within the BRICS group, remains constrained by rivalry in high-tech segments of the arms industry and by lingering concerns about the prospects of peer interference in their shared regional vicinity.; (AN 40234797)
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7.

Military robots: mapping the moral landscape by Cole, Chris. Defence Studies, October 2016, Vol. 16 Issue: Number 4 p450-451, 2p; (AN 40234799)
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8.

Geopolitics and the quest for dominance by Devanny, Joe. Defence Studies, October 2016, Vol. 16 Issue: Number 4 p451-453, 3p; (AN 40234801)
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9.

Handbook of terrorism in the Asia-Pacific by Tan, Andrew. Defence Studies, October 2016, Vol. 16 Issue: Number 4 p453-454, 2p; (AN 40234800)
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10.

Die Bundeswehr in Afghanistan: Militärische Handlungslogik in internationalen Interventionen (Series: Neueste Militärgeschichte. Analysen und Studien, 5) by Sangar, Eric. Defence Studies, October 2016, Vol. 16 Issue: Number 4 p454-456, 3p; (AN 40234802)
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11.

Israel’s way of war: a strategic and operational analysis, 1948–2014 by Libel, Tamir. Defence Studies, October 2016, Vol. 16 Issue: Number 4 p456-457, 2p; (AN 40234803)
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12.

Editorial Board Defence Studies, October 2016, Vol. 16 Issue: Number 4 pebi-ebi; (AN 40234804)
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14

Defense and Security Analysis
Volume 33, no. 1, January 2017

Record

Results

1.

Editorial by Edmonds, Martin; Palmore, Julian. Defense and Security Analysis, January 2017, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 1 p1-2, 2p; (AN 41478428)
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2.

Majority rule, minority issues: The Macedonian question in the Dekemvriana by Horncastle, James. Defense and Security Analysis, January 2017, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 1 p3-14, 12p; Abstract: ABSTRACTThis article examines the role of the Macedonian Question in the 1944 December Uprising (Dekemvriana) in Greece. While the Dekemvriana is commonly portrayed in right–left terminology in the historiography, this article argues that part of the reason for the left’s failure was their inability to manage the Macedonian ethnic component of the struggle, either within their armed forces or in their relationship with Yugoslavia. As such, this article integrates the early phases of the Greek Civil War into the broader literature on minorities in civil conflict, while simultaneously exposing some of the myths about Macedonian involvement that result from its contemporary political ramifications.; (AN 41478429)
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3.

The fertile ground of Hell’s carnival: Charles T. R. Bohannan and the US Army’s Counter Intelligence Corps’ investigations of war criminals, collaborators, and the Huk, in the Philippines 1945–1947 by Ridler, Jason. Defense and Security Analysis, January 2017, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 1 p15-29, 15p; Abstract: ABSTRACTInsurgencies thrive in regions where government legitimacy is absent. In the post-war Philippines, Captain Charles T. R. Bohannan of the Army’s Counter Intelligence Corps became actively aware of this dynamic. Bohannan is best known for his later work with Edward Lansdale and Ramon Magsaysay in defeating the Huk Rebellion (1950–1954). Here the author examines Bohannan’s early investigative work against Japanese war criminals, wartime Filipino collaborators, and the rising threat of communist subversion most associated with the Huk. All of these experiences fed into what would be the successful campaign against the Huk, chronicled in his seminal work, Counter Guerrilla Operations: The Philippines Experience, and offers lessons on the investigative (as opposed to tactical or psychological) nature of effective counter-insurgency work, as it relates to both legitimacy in governance and the rise of insurgencies.; (AN 41478430)
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4.

Risk communication within military decision-making: pedagogic considerations by Liwång, Hans. Defense and Security Analysis, January 2017, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 1 p30-44, 15p; Abstract: ABSTRACTRisk management is a decision-support process and a vital tool for military planning and decision-making. Today, several nations utilize risk-based approaches to analyze the level of security in military operations. There are both strengths and challenges in applying risk-based approaches to support military decisions. In this article, the challenges related to risk communication are investigated with the aim of describing how a military organization should train to create a good environment for effective risk communication. The analysis finds that it is important for the organization to define and consistently use a shared risk understanding. Such a shared risk understanding will need a systematic development process that focuses on the future decision makers’ and analysts’ education and training. To reach understanding, all involved parties must have the chance to identify the problem, reflect on its implications, test different solutions and develop a solution.; (AN 41478431)
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5.

Sharing security in an era of international cooperation: unmanned aerial vehicles and the United States’ Air Force by Rinehart, Christine Sixta. Defense and Security Analysis, January 2017, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 1 p45-56, 12p; Abstract: ABSTRACTThe United States’ Air Force (USAF) has developed and used unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology to monitor and assassinate dangerous terrorists in Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Pakistan, Somalia, Syria, and Yemen. Currently, there are few countries that possess armed UAV and since the US created much of this technology, the USAF is usually part of the training that automatically accompanies the purchase of its UAVs. The research question this article attempts to answer is, “What is the extent of the United States’ Air Force assistance in the training and proliferation of UAV technology to foreign militaries?”; (AN 41478432)
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6.

Putin and Russia in retro and forward: the nuclear dimension by Cimbala, Stephen J.. Defense and Security Analysis, January 2017, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 1 p57-67, 11p; Abstract: ABSTRACTDeterioration in security relations as between NATO and Russia reached boiling point in the aftermath of Russia’s annexation of Crimea in 2014 and its subsequent destabilization of Eastern Ukraine. As a result, some voices in the West look forward to the departure of Vladimir Putin from power, and others to the possible disintegration of Russia as a unitary state. However, both the departure of Putin and the collapse of Russia have a nuclear dimension. Putin has issued pointed reminders of Russia’s status as a nuclear great power, and Russian military doctrine allows for nuclear first use in the event of a conventional war with extremely high stakes. Beyond Putin, a breakup of Russia would leave political chaos in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and elsewhere, inviting ambiguous command and control over formerly Russian nuclear forces.; (AN 41478433)
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7.

Putin – the masked nemesis of the strategy of ambiguity by Mastriano, Douglas. Defense and Security Analysis, January 2017, Vol. 33 Issue: Number 1 p68-76, 9p; Abstract: ABSTRACTRecent events demonstrate the complex and adaptive approach employed by Russia to reassert influence in Europe. The changing face of Russia’s strategy commenced in 2007 when it launched a crippling cyber-attack against Estonia. This was followed by a large Russian conventional attack against Georgia in 2008, occupying two large areas of the nation. 2014 witnessed the Russian annexation of Crimea where in just a week, Russia seized control of Crimea “without firing a shot.” The annexation of Crimea was rapidly followed by a Russian inspired and led subversive war in eastern Ukraine. The common thread among these diverse Russian operations is its use of ambiguity to confound and confuse decision makers in the West.; (AN 41478434)
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15

Democratization
Volume 24, no. 4, June 2017

Record

Results

1.

Reverse coattail effects in undemocratic elections: an analysis of Russian locomotives by Moraski, Bryon J.. Democratization, June 2017, Vol. 24 Issue: Number 4 p575-593, 19p; Abstract: ABSTRACTThis article argues that the effectiveness of the tactics ruling parties use to control the electoral arena may depend on the electoral experience of its subordinates. To substantiate this point, the work examines Russia’s “locomotives” – the practice of placing regional governors on the list of the ruling party, United Russia, during national legislative elections. It argues that electoral payoffs also came from select regions without locomotives. Given the move to appointed governors, list exclusion likely indicated gubernatorial vulnerability. As a result, governors left off United Russia’s list may have responded by seeking to demonstrate their electoral utility, and those with longer tenures were more likely to succeed in these efforts. An analysis of the 2007 Duma elections shows that United Russia’s vote share was higher in regions where long-serving governors were left off the list. Since Russia’s appointment system dramatically changed the gubernatorial corps between 2007 and 2011, the article also considers changes in the effects of list placement over time. It finds that the relationship between list exclusion and higher vote shares for United Russia disappears as governors with electoral experience were removed from office.; (AN 41664763)
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2.

Democracy and the demographic transition by Wilson, Ben; Dyson, Tim. Democratization, June 2017, Vol. 24 Issue: Number 4 p594-612, 19p; Abstract: ABSTRACTThis article addresses the role of demographic factors in contributing to the emergence of democracy. It maintains that, other things being equal, progress in the demographic transition promotes democratization. The argument is developed with reference to the effects of interrelated changes in mortality, natural increase (i.e. population growth), fertility, and population age structure. Suggestions are also made with respect to how demographic and democratic trends should be gauged. An analysis of data for the period 1970–2005 for 77 countries that were initially non-democratic provides substantial support for the argument. Some implications are discussed, as are future trends in democratization from a demographer’s perspective.; (AN 41664764)
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3.

Direct democracy and subjective regime legitimacy in Europe by Gherghina, Sergiu. Democratization, June 2017, Vol. 24 Issue: Number 4 p613-631, 19p; Abstract: ABSTRACTWhile much research focuses on the causes and consequences of direct democracy and regime legitimacy, little attention has been paid to the potential relationship between them. In an attempt to fill this void, this paper focuses on the legal provisions for direct democracy and its use. The key argument is that possibilities for the public’s direct involvement reflect high importance given to citizens, openness of the regime towards different modes of decision-making, and ways to avoid unpopular institutions. Consequently, citizens are likely to accept and support the regime, improving or maintaining its legitimacy. The cross-national analysis includes 38 European countries ranging from transition countries to established democracies. It uses bivariate statistical analysis and country-level data collected from legislation, secondary sources, and aggregate surveys.; (AN 41664765)
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4.

#Democracy: social media use and democratic legitimacy in Central and Eastern Europe by Placek, Matthew Alan. Democratization, June 2017, Vol. 24 Issue: Number 4 p632-650, 19p; Abstract: ABSTRACTSince 1989, many of the former communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) have made the dramatic change from communist regimes to democratic nations that are integrated in the European sphere. While these sweeping changes have given rise to a successful transition to democracy unlike any the world has ever seen, there remain issues with governance as well as citizen support for the regime. While other studies have shown that mass media can influence a person's attitudes and opinions in the region, none has explored what effect social media can have on orientations toward democracy in the region. In the following paper, I build several hypotheses based on previous studies of media effects and democratic survival. I then employ survey data to empirically test whether social media increases support for democracy. The study finds that not only does using social media increase support for democracy, but also simple usage rather than information seeking provides more consistent effects on a person's support for democracy in CEE.; (AN 41664766)
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5.

Effects and side effects of European Union assistance on the former Soviet republics by Shyrokykh, Karina. Democratization, June 2017, Vol. 24 Issue: Number 4 p651-669, 19p; Abstract: ABSTRACTSince the early 1990s the European Union (EU) has been the largest donor to the post-Soviet states. In the last decade it more than doubled development assistance to the region. One of the major purposes of assistance is human rights promotion. At the same time, it is still an open question whether, and under what conditions, assistance can improve human rights in recipient countries. This study applies time-series cross-section (TSCS) analysis to identify effects of external assistance. Using data from 12 post-Soviet states over 20 years, I show that conditions under which states are more likely to display a positive effect are high state capacity and political conditionality attached to economic cooperation agreements. Whereas, when state capacity is lower, assistance might cause a slight deterioration of the human rights situation. In hybrid regimes, assistance is associated with negative effects, indicating that external assistance might induce deterioration of human rights in such regimes.; (AN 41664767)
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6.

Dead letters on a page? Civic agency and inclusive governance in neopatrimonialism by Puljek-Shank, Randall. Democratization, June 2017, Vol. 24 Issue: Number 4 p670-688, 19p; Abstract: ABSTRACTNeopatrimonialism has explanatory power regarding the limitations of post-war democratization because it considers the combination of formally-democratic institutions together with power relations based on patronage. Neopatrimonialism does not however explain why marginalized groups make political claims in such inhospitable climates, nor have their experiences of governance processes been adequately explored. This paper addresses this gap based on empirical research in Bosnia-Herzegovina, applying a framework of civic agency to elaborate the goals and capacities of civil society actors. Under what conditions can civic agency foster inclusive governance outcomes? The research found that perceptions of limited and ambiguous outcomes from engagement in governance processes encourage civil society organizations to have incrementalist goals and limit self-perceptions of capacity. Inclusive outcomes were nonetheless more likely with persistent intentions and actions. Transactional capacities based on ties to political actors rather than participatory capacities based on political mobilization were more likely to lead to inclusive governance outcomes.; (AN 41664769)
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7.

Why monarchy persists in small states: the cases of Tonga, Bhutan and Liechtenstein by Corbett, Jack; Veenendaal, Wouter; Ugyel, Lhawang. Democratization, June 2017, Vol. 24 Issue: Number 4 p689-706, 18p; Abstract: ABSTRACTMonarchical rule is said to have become anachronistic in a modern age of legal rational orders and representative institutions. And yet, despite successive waves of democratization having usurped their authority across much of the globe, a select few monarchs remain defiant, especially in small states. This stubborn persistence raises questions about the application of Huntington’s “King’s Dilemma” in which modern monarchs are apparently trapped in a historical cycle that will ultimately strip them of meaningful power. Drawing on in-depth historical research in three small states that have sought to combine democratic and monarchical rule – Tonga, Bhutan, and Liechtenstein – we argue that, contra Huntington, monarchs in small states are neither doomed to disappear nor are they likely to be overwhelmed by the dilemma posed by modernist development. The lesson is that the size of political units is a critical variable too often overlooked in existing studies.; (AN 41664768)
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8.

Preventive action and conflict mitigation in Nigeria’s 2015 elections by Orji, Nkwachukwu. Democratization, June 2017, Vol. 24 Issue: Number 4 p707-723, 17p; Abstract: ABSTRACTPrior to the 2015 Nigerian general elections, there were concerns that the fierce political contest would lead to electoral violence in the country. However, the elections were conducted peacefully, with fewer disputes and election-related deaths than previous elections. This study accounts for the fall in the level of electoral violence in Nigeria and discusses the lessons that Nigeria’s experience presents. It argues that the avoidance of destructive electoral disputes in Nigeria was the result of preventive action taken by the country’s electoral commission, civil society groups, and development partners. The specific preventive actions taken include innovations in election administration aimed at enhancing electoral transparency and credibility, election security measures such as early warning and peace messaging, and preventive diplomacy urging the main candidates and the political elite to embrace peace. The key lesson that can be drawn from Nigeria’s experience is that a well thought out conflict prevention strategy should be an integral part of electoral governance, especially in countries with a high risk of electoral violence.; (AN 41664770)
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9.

In-between liberal authoritarianism and electoral authoritarianism: Hong Kong’s democratization under Chinese sovereignty, 1997–2016 by Fong, Brian. Democratization, June 2017, Vol. 24 Issue: Number 4 p724-750, 27p; Abstract: ABSTRACTOn the eve of the twentieth anniversary of the handover, Hong Kong’s transition towards a full democracy remains unsettled. Drawing upon the contemporary theories of hybrid regimes, this article argues that manipulations adopted by electoral authoritarian governments have become increasingly common in Hong Kong today. As Hong Kong’s elections, opposition activities, and media have been increasingly put under electoral authoritarian-style manipulations, the city-state is now situated in the “political grey zone” in-between liberal authoritarianism and electoral authoritarianism and its transition into a full democracy remains nowhere in sight. The case study of Hong Kong will help enrich the existing comparative literature on hybrid regimes by developing a new “in-between category” and offering an interesting case of democratization of sub-national polity.; (AN 41664771)
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10.

Hitting the saturation point: unpacking the politics of bureaucratic reforms in hybrid regimes by Bolkvadze, Ketevan. Democratization, June 2017, Vol. 24 Issue: Number 4 p751-769, 19p; Abstract: ABSTRACTHow do the survival incentives facing incumbents in hybrid regimes affect the engineering of bureaucratic reforms? This article tackles this question by departing from the literature on competitive authoritarianism and with the help of detailed empirical evidence from Georgia’s public administration reforms (2004–2012). It first argues that in order to preserve their hold on power, dominant parties have to tilt the political playing field, while still upholding popular support. I posit that this dual incentive structure leads the incumbents to promote efficiency of public service, but to also curb these policies at a point that would jeopardize their ability to use administrative resources for partisan ends. Consequently, bureaucratic reforms reach a saturation point, beyond which no more reforms can be endured.; (AN 41664772)
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11.

The taming of democracy assistance, by Sarah Sunn Bush by Bardall, Gabrielle. Democratization, June 2017, Vol. 24 Issue: Number 4 p770-772, 3p; (AN 41664773)
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12.

Can political engineering build democracy? Three Southeast Asian cases by Reilly, Benjamin. Democratization, June 2017, Vol. 24 Issue: Number 4 p772-777, 6p; (AN 41664775)
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13.

African state governance: subnational politics and national power, by A. Carl LeVan, Joseph Olayinka Fashagba and Edward R. McMahon by Ferreira do Vale, Hélder. Democratization, June 2017, Vol. 24 Issue: Number 4 p777-779, 3p; (AN 41664774)
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14.

Foreign pressure and the politics of autocratic survival, by Abel Escribà-Folch and Joseph Wright by Yakouchyk, Katsiaryna. Democratization, June 2017, Vol. 24 Issue: Number 4 p779-781, 3p; (AN 41664776)
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16

Demokratizatsiya
Volume 25, no. 1, February 2017

Record

Results

1.

Blogging Strategies and Political Tactics in Runet: Introduction to the Special Issue by Suslov, Mikhail. Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization, February 2017, Vol. 25 Issue: Number 1 p3-5, 3p; (AN 41391525)
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2.

Leadership and Leaders in Networked Social Movements by Nikiporets-Takigawa, Galina. Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization, February 2017, Vol. 25 Issue: Number 1 p7-22, 16p; Abstract: Abstract:The followers/leaders, participation/leadership division is less obvious in Networked Social Movements than in traditional movements. Participants in these movements, adhering to egalitarian principles, seek to emphasize the absence of leaders, which has led some to characterize the movements as “leaderless.” This article interrogates that perspective through a critical review of these interpretations and myths, as well as the autonomous leadership theory proposed by Simon Western. After demonstrating the existence of hierarchy in Networked Social Movements, the article then focuses on the leaders of the Networked Social Movements, considering their specific characteristics in comparison to traditional leaders, and discussing the influence of new technologies on these specific characteristics.; (AN 41391404)
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3.

Parody Microbloggers as Chroniclers and Commentators on Russian Political Reality by Denisova, Anastasia. Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization, February 2017, Vol. 25 Issue: Number 1 p23-41, 19p; Abstract: Abstract:In the political environment of contemporary Russia, government-controlled media dominate the discourse. However, the Internet still provides a platform for – and visibility to – alternative voices and ideas. Parody microblogging is a popular recent phenomenon of Russian-language social media. Users with satire accounts utilize the names of power holders, publish links to the news, and provide opinion and contextualization, as well as offering satirical commentary on corruption, the management of the country and media propaganda. This article studies the function of parody framing in critical microblogging in the Russian-language Twitter. It discusses accounts spoofing the elites as tactical media that disrupt the hegemonic discourse and interpret political reality for the Russian digital audience.; (AN 41391679)
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4.

Blogging in Russian Academia: Practices of Self-Representation in Public Contexts by Zvereva, Galina. Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization, February 2017, Vol. 25 Issue: Number 1 p43-61, 19p; Abstract: Abstract:Academic blogging occupies an important place in the Russian social communications system. Russian academics are now creating and maintaining blogs on various digital platforms, using diverse formats to interact with on-line audiences. This paper explores how the behaviour of academic bloggers resembles that of other bloggers on the Internet. What are the features of academic blogging that distinguish it from other social media, and how visible are Russian scholars as bloggers? The paper examines the spaces in which academics in the Russian blogosphere position themselves in the public digital environment, and analyzes the ways in which they present and identify themselves. On this basis, it provides insight into how academic professionals organize their interactions with the wider public, and the ways in which specialized knowledge is transformed and broadcast in public online culture.; (AN 41391538)
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5.

Holy Fools in the Digital Age: Strategies of Self-Positioning in the Russian-language Orthodox Blogosphere by Suslov, Mikhail. Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization, February 2017, Vol. 25 Issue: Number 1 p63-85, 23p; Abstract: Abstract:This article analyzes the blogs of Russian-language Orthodox priests on the platform of LiveJournal. com, focusing on how bloggers reflect on their own activities, how they manage their identities, and how they relate to the secular Other and to the Church hierarchy. The analysis draws on the medieval Russian tradition of “holy foolishness” as the context which helps bloggers orientate themselves in and make sense of the digital environment, associated with a threat to the Orthodox ethos and theology. The article argues that Orthodox bloggers are a closed circle, opposed to the secular “outside world.” In relation to the Church authority, their position is ambiguous: they simultaneously distance themselves from the task of carrying out the Church mission online, and capitalize on their spiritual status for the purpose of “creation of the self” in the digital age.; (AN 41391705)
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6.

Self-Representation in the Web World of Opera: What Do the Blogs and Social Network Accounts of Famous Russian Opera Singers Tell Us About? by Kotkina, Irina. Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization, February 2017, Vol. 25 Issue: Number 1 p87-109, 23p; Abstract: Abstract:Uppsala Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies This article examines the online self-staging strategies of famous opera singers of Russian origin in Runet (the Russian-language internet). It argues that, in the Russian media context, opera singers’ blogs create an “emotional regime” of high intensity, which helps them to destabilize political hierarchies and intimately connect the grassroots with the political sphere. The study starts from the assumption that the digital environment changes the character of relations between audiences and celebrities in several ways. The most important of these, the paper argues, is that social network communication between opera stars and their fans distorts the traditional limitations and hierarchies.; (AN 41391736)
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17

Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict
Volume 9, no. 1-3, September 2016

Record

Results

1.

Computational linguistics analysis of leaders during crises in authoritarian regimes by Dowell, Nia M.; Windsor, Leah C.; Graesser, Arthur C.. Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict, September 2016, Vol. 9 Issue: Number 1-3 p1-12, 12p; Abstract: We investigated linguistic patterns in the discourse of three prominent autocratic leaders whose tenure lasted for multiple decades. The texts of Fidel Castro, Zedong Mao, and Hosni Mubarak were analyzed using a computational linguistic tool (Coh-Metrix) to explore persuasive linguistic features during social disequilibrium and stability. The analyses were guided by the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion, which contrasts central versus peripheral routes to persuasion. Results show these leaders utilize the central persuasion route, with more formal discourse patterns during times of crises versus non-crises. A significant interaction between leader age and armed conflict revealed interesting adaptive characteristics. Specifically, leaders' formality decreases over time in both crises and non-crises times, but this attenuation is less prominent during crisis periods. The implications of these results are discussed in the context of using computational linguistics analyses to generate potential predictive models of social disequilibrium and to advance our understanding of authoritarian regimes.; (AN 41221373)
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2.

What a difference two years make: patterns of radicalization in a Philippine jail by Kruglanski, Arie W.; Gelfand, Michele J.; Sheveland, Anna; Babush, Maxim; Hetiarachchi, Malkanthi; Ng Bonto, Michele; Gunaratna, Rohan. Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict, September 2016, Vol. 9 Issue: Number 1-3 p13-36, 24p; Abstract: AbstractRecent high-profile terrorist attacks have led to attempts by social scientists to investigate the processes behind radicalization. Prisons have been identified as possible breeding grounds for radical extremism. However, the evidence so far is based almost solely on case studies. The research provides one of the first quantitative assessments of prison radicalization with directly measured extremist attitudes among detained terrorism suspects. The findings suggest that the prisoners indeed radicalized over time. This trend was predicted partially by demographic variables such as marital status, and psychological factors such as the need for cognitive closure (NFCC) and social dominance orientation (SDO).; (AN 41221374)
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3.

Cuing moral transcendence reduces support for torture and disentangles it from retributive and utilitarian concerns by Callaghan, Bennett; Hansen, Ian G.. Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict, September 2016, Vol. 9 Issue: Number 1-3 p37-56, 20p; Abstract: AbstractWe investigated the impact of moral schemas with differing levels of “transcendence” on attitudes towards torture. Participants were exposed to one of three morality-relevant experimental conditions priming different levels of moral transcendence – with moral transcendence understood as the primary psychological dimension distinguishing preconventional, conventional and postconventional reasoning. Participants later considered two hypothetical detainee scenarios. For each detainee, participants judged the importance of punishment and seeking information, and evaluated the appropriateness of “severe interrogation”, either abstractly conceived (ACSI) or concretely described (CDSI). Across scenarios, the correlations between desiring information, desiring punishment, and recommending CDSI were strongest in the least transcendent condition and weakest in the most transcendent, suggesting that greater primed transcendence reduced associations between supporting CDSI and two common motivations of such support. Exposure to more transcendent moral schemas was also associated with a monotonic decline in support for CDSI in the two scenarios.; (AN 41221375)
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4.

Ideological rationality and violence: An exploratory study of ISIL’s cyber profile by Derrick, Douglas C.; Sporer, Karyn; Church, Sam; Scott Ligon, Gina. Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict, September 2016, Vol. 9 Issue: Number 1-3 p57-81, 25p; Abstract: AbstractThis exploratory study examines the narrative space of the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). Specifically, we developed a methodology to gather, archive, and analyze ISIL’s online presence in social media. Our sample was drawn from transient websites (N= 8308) collected between August 2015 and October 2015. From this pool, we coded a random sample of 100 English-only articles for violent, pragmatic, and ideological themes. Exploratory factor analyses revealed two constructs: violence and ideological rationality. Our findings offer insight into the messaging and organizational dynamics of ISIL. We conclude with implications and future directions.; (AN 41221376)
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5.

Designing and implementing programmes to tackle radicalization and violent extremism: lessons from criminology by Cherney, Adrian. Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict, September 2016, Vol. 9 Issue: Number 1-3 p82-94, 13p; Abstract: AbstractThe field of criminology has helped to inform research and debate on the causes and prevention of terrorism. It has also provided important insights into understanding and tackling radicalization and violent extremism. In this paper the criminological field of crime prevention is drawn on to highlight how lessons from crime prevention policy and practice can help inform the ways central and local governments, authorities and community-based organizations programmatically (at the level of planning, designing and implementing policy or strategies) respond to radicalization and violent extremism. The five key lessons/insights covered are (1) the possible iatrogenic effects of interventions, (2) the need to use credible voices, (3) limits of diversion, (4) tension between central and local priorities, and (5) sustainability and capacity building. The aim is to highlight how various pitfalls in programme design and delivery can be overcome in the field of deradicalization and countering violent extremism. While the issues canvassed are not an exhaustive list, this paper reflects similar attempts to identify how experiences from other policy fields can help inform counter-terrorism efforts.; (AN 41221377)
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6.

Effect of foreign military intervention and controlled territory on the operational tempo of al-Shabaab attacks by Regens, James L.; Mould, Nick; Sartorius, Christopher M.; O’Dell, Jonathan. Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict, September 2016, Vol. 9 Issue: Number 1-3 p95-107, 13p; Abstract: AbstractHarakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen (commonly referred to as al-Shabaab) is the largest radical Islamist organization in Somalia and one of the oldest Islamist militant groups operating in Africa. This article analyzes the effects of foreign military intervention and the ability of the group to control territory on the operational tempo of al-Shabaab’s terrorist campaign. We examine the monthly distribution of attacks for 1050 successful attacks that occurred between December 2007 and December 2014 to assess fluctuation in operational tempo. A multivariate model is specified to estimate the impact of prior operational tempo, external military intervention, and the group’s ability to control territory within Somalia on variation in current operational tempo. Precipitation is included in the model as a variable to control for the effect of the rainy season in sub-Saharan Africa, which potentially reduces the group’s operational tempo by limiting its mobility. Focusing on the patterns associated with individual attacks over time and their relationship to internal and external influences provides insights into the role that prior operational tempo, controlled territory, and foreign military intervention play in facilitating or constraining the operational dynamics of the al-Shabaab terrorist organization, which may be replicated by groups operating elsewhere that combine insurgency with terrorism.; (AN 41221378)
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7.

Editorial Board Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict, September 2016, Vol. 9 Issue: Number 1-3 pebi-ebi; (AN 41221379)
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