"We will ensure that NATO is able to effectively address the specific challenges posed by hybrid warfare threats, where a wide range of overt and covert military, paramilitary, and civilian measures are employed in a highly integrated design." — from the NATO Wales Summit Declaration (2014)
This LibGuide is intended to provide a few starting points to assist you with your research on issues related to hybrid warfare, in particular in the NATO context.
According to NATO “Hybrid threats are those posed by adversaries, with the ability to simultaneously employ conventional and non conventional means adaptively in pursuit of their objectives”. (Source: “NATO countering the hybrid threat”, NATO ACT, 23 September 2011)
On 1 December 2015, during the Meetings of NATO Ministers of Foreign Affairs, a new strategy on hybrid warfare was approved. (Source: Press statements by the NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg and the EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Federica Mogherini, 2 December 2015)
On 11 April 2017, several NATO Allies and European Union members came together in Helsinki (Finland), formally agreeing to establish a European Centre of Excellence for Countering Hybrid Threats. (Source: NATO)
Good places to start your research include :
- the NATO Defense College publications:
- from the NATO Review:
- the NATO LibGuides on:
- the NATO Topic pages on:
A brief selection of analyses:
- See Frank Hoffmann, one of the early writers on the subject: "Conflict In the 21st Century: The Rise of Hybrid Wars", published in 2007 by the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies;
- For Col. John J. McCuen (ret.), hybrid wars are "‘full spectrum wars with both physical and conceptual dimensions" (in Military Review, March-April 2008)
- NATO Countering the Hybrid Threat by Michael Miklaucic (23 September 2011)
- Hybrid Warfare ed. by T. McCulloh & R. Johnson and published by the Joint Special Operations University (August 2013). This monograph presents a combination of both an overarching theory as well as an operational perspective.
- For an analysis of the evolution of the hybrid warfare's concept, see The Hybrid Mindset and Operationalizing Innovation: Toward a Theory of Hybrid - A monograph, by Major John R. Davis, Jr., U.S. Army (22 May 2014)
- Hybrid warfare? NATO's new security challenge? (2015), Draft General Report by Julio Miranda Calha, General Rapporteur - 051 DSC 15 E, NATO Parliamentary Assembly
- In Riga on 5 March 2015, NATO Deputy Secretary General Ambassador Alexander Vershbow called for deeper cooperation between NATO and the European Union in the fight against new security threats.
- On 13 May 2015, the European External Action Service (EEAS) of the European Council published a "Food-for-thought paper "Countering Hybrid Threats" reaffirming the need for the EU and NATO "to work in a mutually supportive manner".
- NATO and New Ways of Warfare: Defeating Hybrid Threats by Julian Lindley-French, NATO Defense College (May 2015)
- Understanding hybrid threats (June 2015) by the European Parliamentary Research Service
- New Threats, New EU and NATO Responses, Clingendael Report (July 2015)
- In September 2015, B. Wittes, asks "what is really new in this idea of hybrid conflict?" ("What Is Hybrid Conflict?" in Lawfare Blog, 11 September 2015).
- In a post titled "Legal Aspects of Hybrid Warfare" (Lawfare Blog, 2 October 2015), the author A. Sari examines the "multifaceted" legal challenges posed by hybrid warfare.
- In a RUSI article: "The Changing Nature of Modern Warfare: Responding to Russian Information Warfare" (August 2015) - and its reduced version published on 12 October 2015 in the Defence-In-Depth Blog - the author R. Thornton offers an analysis of the "Russian version of the hybrid-warfare measures", using the concept of "integration" as being at the heart of hybrid warfare.
- For a good overview of the topic, in French: "Le piège de la guerre hybride" by E. Tenenbaum (IFRI, October 2015). Not to forget, in French also, the special issue published by the Revue de Defense Nationale: "Penser la guerre...hybride ?" (March 2016 - in print only)
- Hybrid tactics: Russia and the West by Nicu Popescu, EUISS (October 2015)
- In December 2015, NATO Defense College published an eBook providing a collection of chapters written by academics and experts which highlight the nature of hybrid threats and discuss ways in which the Alliance might deal with them, "NATO's Response to Hybrid Threats" ed. by Guillaume Lasconjarias and Jeffrey A. Larsen.
- In March 2016, a research paper published by the University of Ottawa presents a brief summary of the hybrid warfare's concept (including its theoretical and definitional origins). "This paper acknowledges that the novelty and usefulness of the concept hybrid warfare is challenged and debated. However, this paper is based on the theoretical assumption that because NATO has defined, identified and securitized “hybrid warfare” as an existential threat, and has devoted significant amounts of resources and efforts in constructing strategic, policy and operational counter-measures aimed exclusively at hybrid warfare, it is of importance in and of itself to discuss and explore." ("Understanding and Countering Hybrid Warfare: Next Steps for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization", by Katie Abbott, 23 March 2016)
- On 5 April 2016, the European Commission and the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy published their joint communication on countering hybrid threats. (Security: EU strengthens response to hybrid threats, 6 April 2016). This text sets out a series of 22 measures (its suggests a hybrid risk study, the creation of a hybrid fusion cell within the EU Intelligence and Situation Centre (IntCent), further reflection on how to improve strategic communication, the establishment of a centre of excellence, etc.)
- On 20 May 2016, before the meeting of NATO Foreign Ministers, NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg and EU High Representative Federica Mogherini stressed again the importance of NATO and EU cooperation on issues of common concern, such as hybrid threats. (NATO - Doorstep statements, 20 May 2016)
- The Foreign Policy Association paper published on 18 July 2016: "Hybrid Warfare: A Known Unknown?"
- The Alliance’s Enhanced Forward Presence in the Baltics and Poland could face serious challenges in ‘sub-conventional’ scenarios, said Martin Zapfe in the CSS paper " ‘Hybrid’ threats and NATO’s Forward Presence" (September 2016).
- Acting on the decisions adopted by the Heads of State and Government at the NATO Summit in Warsaw, the NATO Ministers of Foreign Affairs decided on 6 December 2016 to endorse over 40 proposals to deepen NATO-EU cooperation in concrete areas, including "countering hybrid threats" (Statement on the implementation of the Joint Declaration signed by the President of the European Council, the President of the European Commission, and the Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
- In the RAND Research Report published in March 2017: "Hybrid Warfare in the Baltics: Threats and Potential Responses", the author Andrew Radin "analyzes the hybrid threat to the Baltics by dividing potential Russian aggression in three categories: nonviolent subversion, covert violent action, and conventional warfare supported by subversion."
- The following paper explores the legal dynamics of hybrid warfare: "Hybrid Warfare, Law and the Fulda Gap" by Aurel Sari (Law of School - University of Exeter, 10 March 2017)
- Published by the RAND Corporation, the report "Understanding Russian "Hybrid Warfare" And What Can Be Done About It" is a testimony presented by Christopher S. Chivvis before the Committee on Armed Services United States House of Representatives on March 22, 2017. This "Testimony explains the key characteristics and uses of Russian hybrid warfare, the major tools involved, and the countries currently targeted. It then gives a brief sketch of the history of
Russian hybrid warfare and outlines basic elements for a strategy to counter it."
- "Understanding the Role of Hybrid Warfare and U.S. Strategy for Future Conflicts" by Rebecca Farrar published on the Center for International Maritime Security's blog (23 April 2017)
- "Why does hybrid war cast such a long shadow over Western conceptions of future threats?" asks Chris Tusk in "Hybrid War: The Perfect Enemy" published on the Defence-In-Depth blog (25 April 2017).