The Arctic has been characterised as an area of low tension in relations between Russia and NATO states in the region. However, there are several emerging issues that could give rise to tensions in the future. James K Wither analyses the prominent example of the Norwegian archipelago of Svalbard, exploring how the territory’s distance from mainland Norway and peculiar legal status leave it politically and militarily vulnerable to Russian adventurism intended to test NATO’s cohesion and solidarity in a crisis.
Jusqu'a tres recemment, les Etats-Unis n'ont accorde que peu d'attention a l'Arctique. Avec le rechauffement climatique et l'ouverture croissante de la region au reste du monde, on observe cependant un changement d'attitude du pays a son egard. La multiplication des documents strategiques, a compter de la fin des annees 2000, ainsi que le reinvestissement diplomatique du Conseil de l'Arctique, temoignent alors de l'interet accru des Etats-Unis pour une region en pleine mutation.
Le Conseil de l'Arctique a ete cree en 1996. Il permet aux huit Etats possedant des territoires an nord du cercle polaire de dialoguer et de developper des projets de cooperation. Concu comme une structure souple orientee vers les echanges scientifiques, il evolue progressivement vers une plus forte institutionnalisation et permet de desamorcer certaines tensions. Des sujets plus politiques y sont desormais abordes, et des normes juridiquement contraignantes y ont ete adoptees.
Depuis une decennie, l'interet de la Russie pour l'Arctique s'est developpe. Des projets economiques ont vu le jour, en particulier dans le domaine energetique et en matiere de transport maritime. Cette region - qui heberge la plus grande part de l'arsenal nucleaire russe - est importante pour Moscou sur le plan militaire. Si des tensions avec d'autres Etats arctiques ne sont pas a exclure, la Russie a interet a maintenir une stabilite propice au developpement economique.
Avec le rechauffement climatique, de nouvelles perspectives s'ouvrent pour l'Arctique. Des opportunites apparaissent dans le domaine du transport maritime et de l'exploitation des ressources naturelles. Si des differends territoriaux persistent dans la zone, nul acteur n'a interet a ce que les tensions degenerent. La stabilite de la region est en effet essentielle a son developpement economique. Les tensions entre la Russie et les Etats arctiques membres de l'OTAN devraient donc etre contenues.
Contemporary Arctic transformations and their global causes and consequences have put international cooperation in the Arctic Council, the region’s most important forum for addressing Arctic affairs, at the forefront of research in Northern governance. With interest in Arctic regional affairs in world politics being at a historical high, the actual participation and contribution by interested actors to regional governance arrangements, such as the Arctic Council, has remained very much a blind spot. This article introduces and analyses a novel dataset on stakeholder participation in the Arctic Council (STAPAC) for all member states, Permanent Participants and observers in Ministerial, Senior Arctic Officials’ and subsidiary body meetings between 1998 and 2015. The article finds that participation in the Arctic Council varies significantly across meeting levels and type of actors, and that new admissions to the Council, a source of major contestation in recent debates, do not necessarily result in more actors attending. The article further discusses these findings in light of three prevalent debates in Arctic governance research, and shows the empirical relevance of the STAPAC dataset for the study of Arctic cooperation and conflict, observer involvement in the Arctic Council system and political representation of indigenous Permanent Participants.
Avec la fonte de la banquise arctique s'est développé un discours médiatique et scientifique sur l'intérêt stratégique du passage du Nord-Ouest. La question du statut des eaux du passage du Nord-Ouest pose celle de l'inclusion ou non de ce détroit dans l'espace maritime souverain du Canada. Les relations entre Etats demeurent cordiales sur le sujet, et il n'y a pas de litige fort entre le Canada et d'autres pays a propos de la souveraineté sur cette route arctique.
How has the role of observers in the Arctic Council evolved and why is there increased interest in participation by states and international institutions ? This article examines the influence and interest of observers in international institutions. The Arctic Council is an international institution founded in 1996 to promote Arctic environmental protection and sustainable development. Ultimately, observers are weak actors in the Council. Despite this weakness, actors seek to become observers for two reasons. First, actors seek to contribute to the governance of environmental issues of global importance. Second, actors strive to gain as states develop the economic potential of the Arctic region.
Abstract: The article examines how Arctic peace was built through the will of all the Arctic states to avoid confrontation and promote cooperation, the main factors that challenge the region's peace, and Russia's growing militarization of the region, as well as the increasing danger of disputes from beyond the Arctic. It also offers suggestions on how the West, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in particular, can respond through the development of an Arctic strategy to deter military threats.
Abstract: The article discusses the BRICS nations in the Arctic, namely Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. It mentions three of the five BRICS that have a seat at the Arctic affairs table including China, India, and Russia, explores whether the three nations will act as responsible partners in regional economic and environmental activities or will choose to compete with other regional powers, and explains the challenge for the Arctic Council to welcome the three as constructive partners.
Abstract: The article focuses on the need for the world to stop thinking about the Arctic as a resource frontier and mentions the potential industrial impacts that would be added to those already disrupting Arctic systems. Topics discussed include the observed unique and fragile nature of the Arctic and its state of flux, its ability to provide a home to around four million people, and the priority areas of intervention that need to be supported in the region.
The Arctic has reemerged as a region of geo-political consequence following rapid reduction in sea ice in the past decade. As the only non-NATO Arctic littoral state, Russia’s approaches to the many disputes in the region will undoubtedly have the greatest bearing on the future security environment. This article examines the two most threatening circumpolar disputes, sea bed delineation and navigation rights, and postulates that Russia’s policies on both issues conform to historical patterns. Recent Russian policy decisions are placed in historical context in order to gauge conflict potential in the Arctic related to these two disputes. The main finding is that the path-dependent trajectories of both issues are becoming ever more distinct as Russia articulates its Arctic policies. In particular, structural and historical factors encourage Moscow toward cooperation and compromise on sea bed negotiations but also suggest that Kremlin intransigence on navigation will continue, with potentially detrimental effect on regional stability.
NOTE: This special supplement includes:
“Rebuilding Its Northern Frontier – Russia in Arctic” p. 9-12;
“Canada Breaking Logjam on Arctic Equipment” p. 10;
“Norway Prioritizes Equipment in Reinforcing High North” p. 10-11;
“Polar Presence Among Coast Guard Priorities” p. 11.
"Climate change is set to elevate the debate over maritime navigation and coastal state jurisdiction in the Arctic Ocean. Russia, with its centuries-old claim over the Northern Sea Route, is likely to increasingly clash with proponents of navigational freedoms as receding ice makes Arctic seaborne logistics viable. Moving forward, Moscow's Arctic posture may resemble its Near Abroad intransigence, particularly when dealing with foreign navies operating in Russia's self-proclaimed area of control. Lincoln E Flake reflects on how the issue of freedom of navigation could pose a greater risk to Arctic stability than the better known disputes over seabed claims and competition for hydrocarbon resources." [FROM ABSTRACT]
After Kiruna: The Arctic Council and Arctic Futures
In 2012, the European Union was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for guaranteeing peace and stability in the last sixty years. Yet, in 2013, its very existence is in doubt. It is time to consider NATO as Europe's guarantor of peace.
"Experimental transit voyages along the Northern Sea Route to the north of Russia are breaking new ground each year and the route is already significant for the export of raw materials from Russian ports. National and corporate interests are now driving Russia's Arctic policy, rather than, as formerly, an exclusive focus on security, and the Russian government has ambitious plans for the development of the route. Future regular transit of the Northern Sea Route between Europe and Asia, at present facing serious obstacles, could be accelerated not only by climate change, but by overload on, or interruptions to, the existing route through the Suez Canal, which passes through some of the world's most volatile regions. Despite the formidable impediments to regular year round transit of the Northern Sea Route, governments of the non‐Arctic states with most at stake, particularly Germany and China, appear to be taking no chances, and to be jockeying for influence in the Arctic region. The interests of the non‐Arctic trading states, and of the European Union, more inclined to view the Arctic Ocean as part of the ‘common heritage of mankind’, are however potentially different from those of Russia, and indeed of Canada in respect of the North East passage, both determined to maintain their exclusive national jurisdiction over emerging sea lanes through their territorial waters. Great issues are at stake here. The emergence of new sea lanes has historically impacted heavily on the international balance of power. Where the merchant fleets go, navies will shortly follow."
"This article analyzes which role the Atlantic Alliance plays in the Arctic and whether it can contribute to the security and territorial integrity of its members in the region. In a dramatic change from the cold war era, the Arctic is no longer at the center of a conflict between two hostile superpowers. But what can a basically military organization such as NATO – though with proven political functions – contribute to stabilizing the Arctic region if its major challenges are non-military? With regional challenges resulting mostly from globalization and climate change, it is open to question whether a military alliance such as NATO has the will and the capability to cope with them. We might thus need to look also at individual members’ interests and abilities besides searching for joint alliance action. If we find NATO not up to the challenges, which alternative institutions offer themselves for coping with the political conflicts and controversies in the Polar region?" [FROM ABSTRACT]
The UK has a 400-year-old relationship with the Arctic. From its history of sixteenth- century exploration to contemporary leading research on climate change, the UK is more than an interested observer. To ensure clear, evidence-based policy action on energy, maritime resources, scientific discovery and security issues, the UK needs a cross- departmental, integrated strategic approach that signals its commitment to the region.
The forces of climate change and globalization are transforming the Arctic, tightening the links between this seemingly remote region and the world at large with regard to matters of environmental protection, sustainable development, and the pursuit of peace. This has triggered an explosion of both popular and scholarly interest in the far north. Much of the resultant literature is marked by persistent expectations that the Arctic will become the scene of escalating jurisdictional conflicts, resource wars, a new great game and even armed clashes during the coming years. Yet as the books considered in this review article make clear, these expectations are greatly exaggerated; there is much to be said for the proposition that armed conflict is less likely to occur in the Arctic than in most other parts of the world anytime soon. What is needed is an alternative paradigm to provide a basis for understanding the significance of the profound changes now eroding the old order in the Arctic and establishing a basis for framing innovative governance arrangements capable of ensuring the future of the Arctic as a zone of peace. [ABSTRACT]
Denmark plans to lay claim to the North Pole and other areas in the Arctic, where melting ice is creating new shipping routes, fishing grounds and drilling opportunities for oil and gas, according to a leaked government document.
As the Arctic ice melts, Germany wants to make sure its scientists gain unfettered access to the region. They have been hindered by the Russians, and other Arctic nations have been hesitant to cooperate. But Berlin also has its eyes on the bigger North Pole booty: natural resources and sea routes.
Is climate change a national security issue? Meterologist and Navy Oceanographer Rear Admiral David Titley discusses how melting glaciers, changing sea ice and rising sea levels might affect Navy operations in the Arctic and around the world--and how the Navy is preparing.
Several different, but intertwined, developments mean
that a new Arctic is on the way. 30 Sweden’s north-western neighbourhood will look different. This development is only in its first stages. From May 2011, Sweden will, for two years, hold the chairmanship of the Arctic Council, which is one of the many reasons why these issues will come into focus for political and diplomatic management. [FROM ARTICLE]
This assessment of Russia as an Arctic power derives from an analysis of structural and ideological factors. It looks at the following indicators: Russia's domestic political system, Russia's foreign policy, and an assessment of Russian economic and military power, primarily in the context of Arctic circumpolar affairs. This assessment also rests on the assumption that Arctic security issues cannot be separated from the larger context of global security. As a result, Russia's behavior in the Arctic over the next decade and beyond will be shaped by its great power aspirations, its relationship with other great powers both in the Arctic and outside of it and the resources available to the Russian state to support its Arctic ambitions.
The Arctic is Hot Again in America and Europe : Introduction to Part 1
ROUSSEL, Stephane and FOSSUM, John Erik. (2010). INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, vol. 65, no. 4, Autumn 2010, p. 799-808. Available only in print [Please contact the Library]
Soft Solutions for Hard Problems
HAFTENDORM, Helga. (2010). INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, vol. 65, no. 4, Autumn 2010, p. 809-824. Available only in print [Please contact the Library]
The Shape of the Table, the Shape of the Arctic
NORD, Douglas C. (2010). INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, vol. 65, no. 4, Autumn 2010, p. 825-836. Available only in print [Please contact the Library]
East-West Collaboration in the European North
HONNELAND, Geir. (2010). INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, vol. 65, no. 4, Autumn 2010, p. 837-850. Available only in print [Please contact the Library]
Russia in the Arctic : What's Lurking Behind the Flag?
PISKUNOVA, Ekaterina. (2010). INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, vol. 65, no. 4, Autumn 2010, p. 857-864. Available only in print [Please contact the Library]
Russia's Arctic Energy Policy
OVERLAND, Indra. (2010). INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, vol. 65, no. 4, Autumn 2010, p. 865-878. Available only in print [Please contact the Library]
Mirror Images? Canada, Russia, and the Circumpolar World
LACKENBAUER, P. Whitney. (2010). INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, vol. 65, no. 4, Autumn 2010, p. 879-897. Available only in print [Please contact the Library]
Cold Peace : Arctic Cooperation and Canadian Foreign Policy
BYERS, Michael. (2010). INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, vol. 65, no. 4, Autumn 2010, p. 899-912. Available only in print [Please contact the Library]
Canadian Sovereignty Versus Northern Security : The Case for Updating our Mental Map of the Arctic
BROADHEAD, Lee-Anne. (2010). INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, vol. 65, no. 4, Autumn 2010, p. 913-930. Available only in print [Please contact the Library]
Choosing not to See : Canada, Climate Change, and the Arctic
SMITH, Heather A. (2010). INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, vol. 65, no. 4, Autumn 2010, p. 931-942. Available only in print [Please contact the Library]
Jet's, Flags, and a New Cold War? Demystifying Russia's Arctic Intentions
The article presents Russia's plans for the Arctic in terms of economic policy, legal and military issues. It provides assessment prospects for the implementation policy and draws implications of the findings for regional security. The Arctic policy sets under the auspices of the influential Russian Security Council with fundamental goals in developing Northern Sea Route (NSR) as a wholly integrated transportation link and central element in maritime connections between Europe and Asia.
Climatic, economic, and technological changes in the Arctic may bring the transformation of Russia from a threatening 'heartland' to a member of the maritime 'rimland'. The change need not bring a new form of conflict, but it does require consideration of how to bring the new Russia into the collaborations and partnerships of other oceangoing states. [FROM THE ARTICLE]
The scope and magnitude of changes to the Arctic region as a result of a changing climate are great - shifts in species populations and distribution, more navigable transportation passages, increased shipping activity and resource extraction, and modified global circulation patterns. The Navy's Task Force Climate Change is addressing these considerations, which will shape safety and security in the Arctic. [FROM THE ARTICLE]
"Russian interest in the High North is not centred on its supposedly vast natural resources, which have been exaggerated and overhyped. Much more important are the strategic implications of climate change in the region. As regional ice retreats, a new frontline is emerging with which Kremlin strategists must contend. Potentially it will bring important new benefits to Russia, such as the logistical ability to move resources from east to west much more easily than before, but it will also open a gateway through which a hypothetical aggressor could attack the Russian mainland. The outside world needs to recognise these strategic implications of climate change and find ways of reassuring Russia." [FROM THE ABSTRACT]
Arctique: une Traversee Strategique
LE CLAINCHE, Mathilde and PESME, Frederic. (2010). POLITIQUE ETRANGERE, vol. 75, no. 4, p. 857-870. Available only in print [Please contact the Library]
Le Grand Nord sera-t-il le nouveau terrain de lutte du XXIe siècle ? Sa cartographie mouvante, redessinée par le changement climatique, mêle les défis environnementaux aux questions énergétiques, et de commerce international. La répartition de ses ressources potentielles entre les pays riverains fait l’objet de contentieux ouverts. Si une certaine militarisation dessine une nouvelle zone conflictuelle, les ambitions stratégiques pourraient s’accorder dans un nouveau cadre juridique multilatéral.
"The article examines the effects of climatic changes on the Arctic Ocean and Arctic regions. Global warming has led to a severe shrinking of the ice sheet which covers the ocean, and many of the environmental effects of that climatic change are irreversible. It has also made prospecting for undersea petroleum and natural gas reserves located in the Arctic more feasible, posing another set of environmental problems, as well as the possibility of international tensions and conflicts. The effects of climatic changes on the region's indigenous peoples such as the Inuit are discussed. It is noted that as the carbon dioxide stored in Arctic permafrost is released, the global rate of greenhouse gas emissions will increase dramatically." [FROM EBSCO]
"The rapidity of Arctic melt is no longer the phantasmagoria of B-grade movies, such as the 'Day after tomorrow', but is occurring at a rate unimaginable just a few years ago. In 2007, more than one million square miles of ice melted, leaving the region with only half the ice that existed in 1950. The Arctic has been propelled into the centre of geopolitics as global climate change has transformed the region into a maelstrom of competing commercial, national security and environmental concerns with profound implications for the international legal and political system. The prospect of longer ice-free periods in the Arctic has momentous implications for the region's commercial development, in itself a further risk to melting Arctic ice. This article argues that Arctic melt does and will continue to pose economic, military and environmental challenges to the governance of the region and explores the role of technological factors as both a barrier and an enabler of access. Working within existing institutions and building capacity is preferable to the proliferation of new institutions, although the full structure and scope of the legal and regulatory frameworks that may be needed are, at present, unclear. But what is clear, is that Arctic melt is on the increase." [FROM THE ARTICLE]
"There is growing recognition of the new strategic significance of the Arctic. Tensions have been rising between Russia and the four other Arctic Ocean littoral states as climate change alters the region's geostrategic dynamics. There are unresolved disputes among the four NATO members, the fault lines between the NATO states on the one hand and Russia on the other appear to be deepening, and the sense of common space is under pressure. Military conflict, while not likely, cannot entirely be ruled out. There is a risk that the overall strategic objective of maintaining stability could be forgotten. Growing military activity, closer security coordination among the Western states, and inflammatory rhetoric could set off a vicious circle, jeopardising the wide-ranging collaboration put in place since the end of the Cold War." [FROM THE ARTICLE]
Les enjeux géopolitiques des pôles
GARCIN, Thierry. (2009). DEFENSE NATIONALE ET SECURITE COLLECTIVE, 65e année, no. 722, août-sept 2009, p. 85-96. Available only in print [Please contact the Library]
« L’Arctique devient le théâtre d’une compétition internationale, que le seul réchauffement de la planète ne suffit pas à expliquer. Des différends durables sont apparus sur la délimitation du plateau continental, le statut de nouvelles routes maritimes, les ressources en hydrocarbures et minières, la pêche, les droits des peuples d’origine. Un traité de l’Arctique est exclu à horizon humain, d’autant plus que la région est vitale pour de grands acteurs stratégiques (revendications russes, bouclier antimissiles américain…). De plus, le Groenland sera sans doute bientôt indépendant. Quant à l’Antarctique, solidement protégé par un traité vieux de 50 ans, il suscite un intérêt renouvelé, pour des raisons qui ne sont pas toutes désintéressées. » [FROM THE ABSTRACT]
"As the Arctic ice melts, the polar region is becoming increasingly exposed to the political tussles of resource exploitation. Accompanying the territorial disputes is the imminent militarisation of the international space by circumpolar states. The UK has a difficult decision to make: either include the Arctic in its future defence strategy or advocate a zone of peace in this valuable part of the world. it cannot do both." [FROM THE ABSTRACT]
The article focuses on the military operations of different countries in the Arctic region. The U.S., Canada and Russia are increasing their military operations in the region and plan to expand their armed forces. The Russian Navy is resuming routine naval presence in the region after a gap of 17 years. [ABSTRACT]
L'Alliance et l'Arctique à la veille du Sommet de Strasbourg
BESSON, Daniel. (2009). DEFENSE NATIONALE ET SECURITE COLLECTIVE, 65e année, no. 4, avril 2009, p. 65-75. Available only in print [Please contact the Library]
« Lors de son discours devant l'Assemblée nationale le 12 février 2009, le Secrétaire général de l'OTAN, Jaap de Hoop Scheffer, a évoque la nécessite pour l'Alliance de s'intéresser a l'Arctique. Se ré intéresser, en fait; car si l'Arctique, nouveau point chaud de la planète, a toujours été au cœur des préoccupations de l'Alliance, la crise géorgienne de 2009 a réactive les discours sécuritaires de certains Allies ou pays partenaires, présentant la Russie comme l'ennemie. Toutefois, la diversité des intérêts laisse place à des espaces de coopération. » [FROM THE ARTICLE]
"As it stands, Arctic policy is already a dense network of legal and political agreements between different national and supranational stakeholders. Now the European Union wants to play a greater role in shaping this policy." [FROM THE ARTICLE]
« Article essentiellement basé sur le rapport de l’Assemblée de l’Union européenne occidentale du 5 novembre 2008 : « La dimension septentrionale de la sécurité européenne ». Symptôme le plus visible du réchauffement climatique, la fonte de la calotte glacière peut avoir des conséquences graves sur la sécurité collective. L’ouverture de voies de navigation et l’accès à de nouvelles ressources entraînent des bouleversements stratégiques de taille. Alors que la Russie affiche depuis plusieurs mois sa volonté d’investir la zone, la réaction de ses voisins se fait attendre. Les enjeux du Grand Nord ne sont plus seulement environnementaux, ils concernent désormais directement la sécurité du monde occidental. » [FROM THE ABSTRACT]
« Le drapeau planté sur le pôle Nord par les Russes à l’été 2007 a ravivé le débat sur l’Arctique, en particulier sur la question de savoir quelles revendications les différents États riverains peuvent faire valoir sur son fond marin soupçonné de regorger de combustibles fossiles. L’objectif de notre contribution est de discuter du cadre juridique applicable à la « répartition » du plateau continental en Arctique et des difficultés particulières liées à la situation géographique. En raison de l’espace restreint, les États riverains doivent y relever non seulement le défi de fixer la limite extérieure de leur plateau continental, mais aussi celui de régler des revendications chevauchantes. Le fait que les États-Unis ne soient pas soumis au même régime juridique que les autres riverains de l’océan Arctique complique encore davantage la situation. Notre étude met un accent particulier sur les enjeux pour le Canada. » [FROM THE ABSTRACT]
The article focuses on the rising strategic opportunity in the Arctic region to sovereign nations due to climate change, including Canada, U.S. and Russia. The only matter that is heating up faster than the rising temperature in the Arctic is the international competition from the surrounding states to solidify their claims and secure control of untapped resources within the area. It contends that the region should develop a broad strategy to protect its economic interests.
"The article examines the status of Arctic international law, and offers policy suggestions for building a peaceful and durable legal regime in the region. The history and resources of the region and the competing claims made by the five circumpolar powers--Canada, Denmark, Russia, Norway and the U.S.--are discussed. Scientific and environmental organizations play a marginal role in Arctic sovereignty disputes and the only international body likely to play a major role in the evolution of Arctic sovereignty is the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf. The 1982 Law of the Sea Convention, which establishes a legal framework for regulating the uses and resources of all ocean space, is generally considered to be one of the most important pieces of international law." [FROM EBSCO]
In this article the author discusses the political implications contained in the impact of global warming and climate change on the Arctic Ocean and its icecap. The author states that as Arctic Ocean ice melts the polar region will be more accessible to prospecting for the natural resources said to exist in significant amounts in the area. It is noted that there are few international regulations governing the Arctic and that nations attempting to exploit the natural resources might engage in armed conflict. [FROM EBSCO]
GARCIN, Thierry. (2008). DEFENSE NATIONALE ET SECURITE COLLECTIVE, 64e année, no. 2, février 2008, p. 150-159. Available only in print [Please contact the Library]
« Les effets du réchauffement de la planète sont particulièrement visibles dans le Grand Nord, l’Année polaire internationale (2007-2008) tombant à point à cet égard. Si toutes les conséquences heureuses et malheureuses sont loin d’en être encore perçues, ce nouvel état de fait réveille les revendications ou convoitises (plateau continental, zones économiques exclusives, ressources naturelles et halieutiques…). À terme, il redistribuera aussi les enjeux de puissance, les sphères d’influence, les routes maritimes. Canada, États-Unis, Danemark, Norvège, Russie sont au centre de l’équation géopolitique. Dès lors, comment anticiper ces possibles facteurs d’insécurité ? » [FROM THE ABSTRACT]
Concern over the loss of sea ice has renewed discussions over the legal status of the Arctic and sub-Arctic transcontinental maritime route connecting the Atlantic and the Pacific, referred to as the "Northwest Passage." Over the last thirty years, Canada has maintained that the waters of the Passage are some combination of internal waters or territorial seas. Applying the rules of international law, as reflected in the 1982 United Nations Law of the Sea Convention, suggests that the Passage is a strait used for international navigation. Expressing concerns over maritime safety and security, recognition of northern sovereignty, and protection of the fragile Arctic environment, Canada has sought to exercise greater authority over the Passage. This article suggests that Canada can best achieve widespread global support for managing its maritime Arctic by acknowledging that the passage constitutes an international strait and then working through the International Maritime Organization to develop a comprehensive package of internationally accepted regulations. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The Northwest Passage : Is Canada's Sovereignty Floating Away?
CHARRON, Andrea. (2005). INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, vol. 60, no.3, Summer 2005, p. 831-848. Available only in print [Please contact the Library]
The Shipping News Part II : How Canada's Arctic Sovereignty is on Thinning Ice
As the polar icecap melts, huge deposits of gas and oil below the seabed will become accessible for the first time. But the question of who owns what in the Arctic is far from clear. With major military build-ups beginning in the area, Oliver Burkeman heads north to investigate